The curious dystopia of Bishop Giacomo Cirulli that reminds us a lot “a lot nice” of Verdone who in the newspaper Avvenire blames the no-vax priests, the faithful traditionalists and the political enemies of the Pontiff

- Pastoral care -

THE CURIOUS DISTOPIA OF BISHOP GIACOMO CIRULLI WHICH MUCH REMINDERS US A "BEAUTIFUL SACK" OF VERDONE THAT IN THE DAILY FUTURE BLAME THE NO-VAX PRIESTS, THE FAITHFUL TRADITIONALISTS AND THE POLITICAL ENEMIES OF THE PONTIFF

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The bishops who are currently thundering and threatening some members of their clergy to proceed with their suspension from the exercise of the priestly ministry, in case of non-vaccination, when they saw some of their parish priests hugging Marco Cappato after signing at the banquet that collected the signatures for the referendum in favor of euthanasia, how they threatened these authentic shames of the Catholic priesthood to proceed against them with canonical penalties? How many, among those priests who have affixed their signature to such a proposal for referendum, have been suspended with a canonical disciplinary measure from the exercise of the sacred ministry?

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Author
Ivano Liguori, Ofm. Capp.

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Yesterday, 16 January, in the daily newspaper of the bishops Future an article signed by Gianni Cardinale has appeared which collects the outburst of the bishop of the diocese of Teano-Calvi, Alife-Caiazzo S. AND. Mons. Giacomo Cirulli. The prelate, as sorrowful as the king of Samaria Akhab whose vineyard Neboth refused [cf.. 1 Re 21, 1-16], opens the cataracts of his heart to the journalist of the bishops' newspaper. Thus we come to part of his immense pain that in these days the faithful and priests no-vax they procured him by reacting to the provision - he says of mere common sense - which consisted in banning some priests, deacons and lay ministers from the distribution of the Eucharist to the faithful of his diocese as guilty of not having vaccinated [you see who, who].

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The bishop, gemente e piangente, motivates his stance as the logical consequence of the serious worsening of the Italian pandemic situation but above all as conforming to the line of thought of the Italian Bishops' Conference and the words of the reigning Pontiff who considers vaccination as an act of love. In short, it almost seems to witness the remaking of Carlo Verdone's film A lot nice in which the character of Ruggero can only express his triumph: «Love, love, love!».

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But we are really sure about the resistances complained by the bishop are to be ascribed solely to the opposition of priests and faithful insensitive to such a beautiful and gratuitous act of love? I do not believe. Beyond all that can be said and thought about the issue of vaccines and the Italian pandemic management by both the State and the Church, what still seems to escape Bishop Cirulli - as I was able to clarify in one of mine previous article - essentially consists in the improvised modus operandi to paternally follow the whole question as one would expect from a bishop. Indeed, a different style would be expected from a successor of the Apostles, certainly more far-sighted, I would dare to say almost as a statesman of the spirit who is capable of looking at the present but essentially at the future and at the future consequences that are already determined today. Because all this will end sooner or later and Msgr. Cirulli, one tomorrow, he will still find himself bishop of that portion of the Church whose children have been mistreated with restrictive measures. What attitude will one have to expect from these priestly sons, deacons, ministers and laity? With what courage will he still be able to look at them without feeling red or with what embarrassment he will be able to bear their gaze veiled by a wounded trust? Look of souls destined for Paradise and not just bodies to be treated, this responsibility which must be held accountable to Christ the Good Shepherd, who took care of the bodies without forgetting the souls.

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Above all, a question is required, always premising, as already done in my previous article, that the absolute majority of the Italian clergy has undergone vaccination, including myself. This is the question, however, as usual, it is destined to remain unanswered: the bishops who are currently thundering and threatening some members of their clergy to proceed with their suspension from the exercise of the priestly ministry, in case of non-vaccination, when they saw some of their parish priests embraced a Marco Cappato after having signed at the banquet that collected the signatures for the referendum in favor of euthanasia, how they threatened these authentic shames of the Catholic priesthood to proceed against them with canonical penalties? How many, among those priests who have affixed their signature to such a proposal for referendum, have been suspended with a canonical disciplinary measure from the exercise of the sacred ministry? Some battle bishops tell us and answer: it is more serious than a frightened - perhaps even ignorant - priest afraid to get vaccinated, or is it more serious than a priest, after having just celebrated Holy Mass on Sunday, go out on the church square, sign in favor of the referendum on euthanasia, photograph yourself with Marco Cappato and then post the photo on your public profile social? Tell us, certain zealous bishops: of the two, which is the most serious? But most of all: how many of the priests who have done this - and there have been several around Italy [cf.. who, who, who] ―, they were removed from the parishes? Because to us it turns out the exact opposite: their respective bishops ignored it, they have not taken any measures and these priests continue to be parish priests. If I want I can add even more: one of these parish priests who signed in favor of referendum on euthanasia, a few weeks later he posted on the door of the parish church the notice that to participate in the sacred functions it was mandatory to GreenPass. Maybe, if for so much zeal his bishop even took him as an example to those very few priests who are frightened by the vaccine, but to whom it would never cross their minds to go and sign in favor of referendum on euthanasia?

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It is not my intention to criticize common sense and the reasonableness of the vaccine as a method currently in use to stem Covid-19 infection, indeed I go back to repeating, for the avoidance of doubt, that we Fathers de The Island of Patmos we all underwent the vaccination. Not only: to those who asked us for guidance we have always replied by premising that we are not specialists in the specific and delicate sector but that we are, even if it is not, common sense leads us to suggest the use of the only system that we currently have available, which is vaccination, to read too, wanting, as a sense of responsibility and respect for ourselves and for others. And as, on certain hot topics, the clarifications are never too many, then I clarify further. When I announced to Father Ariel this morning that I had just sent this new article to the editorial office, his answer was: «Right now I'm going to the vaccination center because after having done the III dose the 10 January I did not receive the SMS with the code needed to print the GreenPass. As soon as I return, we will assemble your item ". In short, he didn't tell me he was going to a demonstration no-vax, how Father Gabriel would not say it and how I would not say it. Having said this, however, it is good to specify that "good" and "bad" Catholics do not evaluate them on the basis of vaccination - which is opportune and undoubtedly necessary -, but on other moral and pastoral grounds. For example we are required to consider "bad", indeed very bad Catholics, those who publicly declare themselves in favor of abortion, the birth control pill, the abortion pill, to marriage between same-sex couples, or who call sweet death through euthanasia "mercy" because they say it is "cruel" to make a dying person suffer. And all this, some bad Catholics, they state this publicly in the name of a distorted and aberrant idea of ​​"Christian love". Those are the bad Catholics for us, indeed bad Catholics. Not those who, undoubtedly mistaken for weakness, fragility or ignorance, but also for the avalanche of contradictory news, of proclamations and denials, of changes of direction and ideas [cf.. who], everything always and strictly speaking without anyone ever admitting "we made a mistake in some evaluation", today they are terrified of being vaccinated.

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Having clarified this I continue: what I believe I can criticize in the legitimate exercise of the freedom of the children of God is the political style of dealing with these resistances to the vaccine that must not and cannot find acceptance in the Catholic Church. If you continue at this rate you do not want to hear reasons, gangrenous in the well-known clerical stubbornness, the only result will be that of cracking the filial trust of the faithful towards their bishops by making that very poor remnant of paternal authority that the Italian episcopate still retains but which seems willing to sell off with every care as soon as possible.

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With surprise we learn from the article that Bishop Cirulli regrets being attacked by Keyboard lions and which has received criticism, threats and insults from many fronts to such an extent as to push Digos to intervene in his rescue - without his having made any request - paying attention to the subversives. So I wonder, distancing oneself from the troublemakers and the disadvantaged who give free rein to violence without having the right logical arguments: It is possible that no one in the episcopal curia has suggested to the prelate to act differently, for example in a less reckless way? No one who felt obliged to make the bishop give up from a sure bad figure and from a media pillory whose sole responsibility can only be he alone?

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I say this because in the continuation of the interview with Future the most imaginative arguments worthy of the best Orwellian despotic conspiracy are reported as reasons for the media pillory. The bishop launches into describing theidentikit of the Catholic no-vax on the basis of what has been done by the newspaper The Republic in recent days [you see who], It is told: "I have the impression that there is a schism taking place", "I was able to understand that these are connected people who belong to a traditionalist world in opposition to the magisterium of Pope Francis". In short, the profile of the cattono-vax is outlined as one lobby well-organized schismatic, ultra-traditionalist, anti-bergogliana, all lace, lace and lace and - I would add - certainly of a conservative matrix and perhaps with right-wing sympathies. All this, however, is tragically and sadly false, because people frightened by the vaccine do not have a precise political connotation, as they do not belong only to the world of Catholic "gloomy traditionalism". Fear is a completely transversal phenomenon. Therefore, the so-called no-vax O anti-vax, we find them in politics on the far right as well as the far left, in the ranks of the most pushed Catholic progressivism as well as in those of the most radical Catholic traditionalism. And who does not see this, it can only give a completely distorted vision of reality, stating that fear, or if we want ignorance in the etymological sense of the term, it only belongs to a very specific category.

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Dear readers, understand why the credibility of the Church today it appears to be at an all-time low? If these are the strong arguments, it's easy to see why people no longer take us seriously but laugh at us. If everything is summed up in oppositional ideological issues then we are doing politics, propaganda, loyalty and party membership. As did the premier Mario Draghi during the last press conference that illustrated the latest anti Covid decree, also Msgr. Cirulli said that in essence the responsibility lies with the unvaccinated - be they consecrated or lay - thus facilitating divisions, creating suspicion, giving twine to the informers, stimulating tensions that will struggle to heal over time.

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And if maybe two years ago, in obedience to the words of the Pope and the Italian Episcopal Conference, the prelate would have been happy to hug a Chinese and eat an inclusive spring roll, today he would be careful not to hug a priest no-vax as a sign of relaxation and the resumption of ecclesial communion. What to say more, these are the times when everyone wishes to appear as Socratic philosophers, everyone feels strong in the assumption of the son of Sofroniscus who says that the rules are respected even when they are unjust and therefore we must do what they command us to do, even if we don't like them "either you eat this soup or you throw yourself out the window" sang Nino Ferrer.

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However, they forget that Socrates he chose to drink hemlock not on the basis of unjust laws but on a manipulated legal system, unable to respect the spirit of the law and the legislator who must provide for fair exceptions and derogations to save the integrity of man and his spirit from dangerous totalitarian drifts.

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Perhaps the next outburst of Msgr. Cirulli it will be entrusted directly to the newspaper The Republic and it will be there that we will learn from the Vatican spokesman Eugenio Scalfari that in some of his imaginative private dialogues with the Pope, vaccination will be one of the essential elements for the validity of the ministerial priesthood and the administration of the Sacraments and all this in order to have more «Love, love, love!». Of course, at this point of the narration it would not spoil the practical sense of the old communist dedicated to the house and family played by the legendary Mario Brega in the film A lot nice. Mario, widower but still capable of sacrificing himself for his only son Ruggero, does not understand the excessive «Love, love, love!» in his son's life experience, so much so that he was taken for a fascist by Fiorenza, whereupon rising to his feet he exclaims: «To me bundle? I bundle? A zoccolè, I don't know’ communist like that, to! So’ communist soììì !!!».

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there, dear readers, we are not yet accustomed to such levels of practical common sense and perhaps we will never get there, at least among the pastors of the Catholic Church.

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Laconi, 18 January 2021

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The "Apostolic Catholic Church". How many words we use and recite without knowing their meaning? At the roots of the concept of "Apostolic"

— Theologica —

THE "APOSTOLIC CATHOLIC CHURCH". HOW MANY WORDS WE USE AND RECIT WITHOUT KNOWING THEIR MEANING? AT THE ROOTS OF THE CONCEPT OF "APOSTOLIC"

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It is undoubtedly a mnemonic phrase, that stamped in the part of I believe in which we recite «I believe the one Church, santa, catholic and apostolic ". How many, however, know the true and profound meaning of "apostolic"? This part is explicitly recited in the I believe last, but this does not mean that it has a last place in theological reflection, therefore in the practice of the life of faith.

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Author:
Gabriele Giordano M. Scardocci, o.p.

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It is undoubtedly a mnemonic phrase, that stamped in the part of I believe in which we recite «I believe the one Church, santa, catholic and apostolic ". How many, however, know the true and profound meaning of "apostolic"? This part is explicitly recited in the I believe last, but this does not mean that it has a last place in theological reflection, therefore in the practice of the life of faith. So last, but not for this last in importance, the note of ecclesial apostolicity builds a bridge between the personal and community aspect of faith. This connotation, indeed, describes the foundation of the community of believers, in a threefold sense:

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  1. The Church is built on the foundation of the apostles [Ef 2,20], the witnesses chosen and sent on mission directly by Christ,
  2. It guards and transmits, with the help of the Holy Spirit who inhabits it from within, the teaching of Christ, the good deposit of faith and the sound words heard by the Apostles;
  3. «Until the return of Christ, the Church continues to be educated, sanctified and guided by the Apostles thanks to their successors in the pastoral mission: the College of Bishops, assisted by priests and united with the Successor of Peter and Supreme Pastor of the Church " [ CCC n. 857].

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In a nutshell these three points they offer an overview of the apostolicity of the Catholic Church. Now we will see them analytically, starting from Sacred Scripture where we find clear references to the presence and choice of Jesus of the Twelve Apostles:

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"Then, called to himself his twelve disciples, gave them the power to drive out unclean spirits and to heal any disease and any infirmity " [Mt 10, 1-4]. The names of the Twelve Apostles are these: the first, Simone called Pietro and Andrea his brother; James of Zebedee and John his brother; Filippo and Bartolomeo; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; Giacomo d’Alfeo and Taddeo; Simon the Canaanite and Judas the Iscariot, the same one who then betrayed him.

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The Evangelist continues:

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«He then went up the mountain, he called to himself those whom he wanted, and they came to him. He appointed Twelve to be with him and also to send them to preach and to have the power to cast out demons [MC 3, 13].

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It's still:

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«In those days he went to the mountain to pray, and spent the night praying to God. When it was day, he called his disciples to him and chose twelve, to whom he also gave the name of apostles " [LC 6, 12].

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The Twelve Disciples are called apostles, the greek ἀπόστολοι (apostles), in Hebrew Messengers (shelichim, plural of delivery person, shaliach, which in both of these languages ​​means literally: sent, because through their ministry Jesus continues his mission. In welcoming the twelve, the whole person of Christ is welcomed, as we read in «Who welcomes you, welcomes me " [Mt 10, 40]. Christ chooses Twelve Apostles precisely. The number of twelve symbolizes universality and refers to the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The greatest novelty in the following of Christ, it consists not so much in the number, as in the fact that it is the teacher who chooses the disciples: while generally in ancient times it was the disciples who chose the teacher from which to draw teachings for the spiritual life. After choosing them, Jesus sends them to preach first throughout the land of Israel and then later to the pagans (defined peoples or gentiles). In this way they begin to pass on and transmit the authentic teaching of Christ. In this way Jesus then forms a college, that is, a stable group of envoys with the permanent mission of transmitting his message and headed by the Apostle Peter. In carrying out this mission, the Holy Spirit gives the apostles all the means and the necessary strength that he needs, through a very special grace: they therefore have the same powers as Christ: the envoys are therefore able to announce and propagate the divine mysteries, to forgive and remit sins and to heal and cast out demons. Furthermore, the Holy Spirit gives him the intelligence to deepen, meditating and announcing the mystery of Christ better.

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Within the group of apostles, we have seen that the presence of the figure of Simon Peter. He is invested with a special role: he is commissioned by Christ as the principle of unity and communion of faith; he is therefore the visible head of the Church; the apostles are to be in communion with him and below him as regards the doctrine of Christ: this, as we shall see, will also apply to the successor of Peter, dad, and to the bishops who are in obedience to him: cum Petro e sub Petro (with Peter and under Peter)

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Let us then deepen the figure of Peter: he is commissioned by Christ to a special mission. It is described in a very important passage of the Gospel:

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«Simon Peter answered: “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God ". And Jesus: "Lucky you, Simon son of Jonah, because neither flesh nor blood have revealed it to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I tell you: You are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church and the gates of hell will not prevail against it "". [Mt 16, 16-18].

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Simone, whose name Jesus changed to Peter, he is the first and only to recognize that Christ is the son of God, of the living God. He therefore "anticipated" the other apostles in this act of faith: therefore he is placed by Jesus as head of the apostolic college. Three very special powers are bestowed on Peter, that the other apostles do not possess: first of all he will never fail, because Peter is the visible and stable stone of the community of believers; secondly, he has the power of the keys of the kingdom e, third, the power to untie and bind. By this we mean:

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"The power of the keys designates the authority to govern the house of God, which it is the Church. Jesus, the Good Shepherd [GV 10, 11], confirmed this post after the resurrection: "Feed my sheep" [GV 21, 15-17]. The power to bind and loose indicates the authority to absolve from sins, to pronounce judgments in matters of doctrine and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church. Jesus gave this authority to the Church through the ministry of the Apostles [cf.. Mt 18,18] and particularly of Pietro, the only one to whom he explicitly entrusted the keys of the Kingdom " [cf.. CCC n. 553].

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We traditionally know that Peter was martyred in Rome in 64 after Christ on the Vatican Hill. Previously, he had been imprisoned at the Mamertine prison, very close to the Capitol. Peter therefore, being head of the apostles, in his martyrdom near Rome he also testifies to the primacy of the Roman see over other communities of believers. A primacy that is not one of domination and despotism, but of service and coordination of all the other dioceses and churches around the world. We anticipate an important concept from now on: the Petrine primacy does not want to diminish collegiality, synodality and common and community work: indeed, Peter and his successors are called to guarantee and confer the dignity and authority of all the apostles and their successors, the bishops. In fact, as we will see shortly, the bishops are the successors of the Apostles. Let us then clarify that the successors of Peter are those placed at the head of the Diocese of Rome, or precisely the bishops of Rome. Historically, the bishop of Rome, it is called by a series of names: Pontiff Maximus, Augustus Pontiff, his Holiness, holy Father, Most Holy Father, or with the more famous one of Papa, which according to a historical theory would be the abbreviation of shepherd of the shepherds, shepherd of all shepherds, O father of the poor, father of the poor.

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Returning to the analysis of the figures of the apostles, we know all the apostles, except for Giovanni, died at a very old age, they will be martyred during their missions in the East and in the territory of the Roman Empire. Even from the martyrdom of the apostles, we find confirmation that the purpose of the foundation and the apostolic presence is to bring the whole community to an eschatological and holiness goal; all apostolic work has the purpose of leading everyone to the kingdom of God.

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Whereas the apostles and their first successors (apostolic fathers) martyrs were dying, it was necessary that the message of Jesus be transmitted in any case: for this they chose successors to perpetuate the mission of Christ. Then they conferred the Holy Order of the Episcopate, what kind of consecrated bishops (bishops), with mandate to continue the apostolic mission as successors of the Apostles. In this sense we will also say that the Church receives the profession of faith from the apostles through the successors of those who were the first adherents to the Jesuit movement..

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Now let's try to understand why the bishops, receiving the Holy Order, they become the official successors of the Apostles. If we read in Acts of the Apostles [cf.. 6, 26] we find that the apostles themselves first gave themselves successors with the task of continuing and consolidating the work of evangelization begun by the Apostles. This work is called the Traditio by two ancient writers of Christianity, Tertullian and Irenaeus of Lyons. The Traditio from the Latin it comes from the verb deliver and it implies the action of handing down and transmitting the faith preached by the Apostles; therefore the bishops by divine institution took the place of the apostles as pastors and guides of the ecclesial community. This handover takes place in a very specific act. So, apostolic transmission, it is conferred through the reception of the Sacrament of Orders, through episcopal consecration.

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Let's clarify this passage of the ordination of bishops. Christ instituted the Sacraments, that were not born of human creativity, they are all enclosed in the Revelation and in the Gospels. This is in order to clarify incidentally that certain currents of non-Catholic Christianity, teaching that the Seven Sacraments, or part of them, they are only a human creation that took place after the Emperor Constantine, starting from the 4th century to follow, I am in blatant error, because all the sacraments are of divine institution. Among the Seven Sacraments is the Sacrament of Holy Orders, which is unique, but internally divided into three degrees: episcopate (or fullness of the apostolic priesthood), presbyterate and diaconate. Those who receive this sacrament, in their individual and personal ministry they are called to the mission of leading the whole Church to the common good and to holiness. It is therefore a task, at the same time singular and at the same time communal. The action of conferring Holy Order is called ordination: in it it is Jesus who, acting in person Christi through a bishop, he orders a priest and consecrates him bishop: therefore it confers on the priest the fullness of the apostolic priesthood to carry out this mission. The episcopate is therefore the fullness of the sacrament of Orders because it contains the very source from which the three degrees of the Sacrament of Orders derive. In fact, the bishop is also the one who ordains deacons and priests, and precisely as mentioned above, orders a priest to become a bishop.

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Briefly we will say that the line of succession provides that an apostle, received full powers from Christ to transmit his teaching and to administer all the sacraments, ordained an apostolic father, giving it the same powers and mission; in turn the apostolic father ordained a bishop, for the same purposes. This bishop, around you, ordained another bishop and throughout history, in ordering all the bishops in succession, it has come down to today. Everything is defined: apostolic succession.

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The transmission of the mandate to transmit and administer the Sacraments to multiple bishops around the world, how many were the apostles originally, it shows that the Church has an apostolic nature, therefore collegial and community. The collegiality and apostolicity of the Bishops implies on the one hand the unity between the Pope and the Bishops because the College of Bishops is linked to its visible head. The Supreme Pontiff is not a tyrant but a guarantor of the very ministry of the Bishops. In fact, he is the guarantor of the unity of the ecclesial body and is the visible material concrete foundation of ecclesial unity (Collegiality = element of Union in the distinction).

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On the other side, the collegiality of the Bishops it implies that this college has a high degree of authority over the whole Church. The individual dioceses collaborate with each other, each bishop can make decisions about the faithful entrusted to him without always asking for authorization from the See of Rome. Moreover, the bishops, they actively collaborate with each other and with the Roman Pontiff in some special moments: nei synodi o, eg, in an ecumenical council. A synod or council convened by the bishops is accepted and confirmed by the Roman Pontiff, but collegially guided: therefore even these ecclesial meetings are never carried out by the Roman Pontiff alone, to which, however, it is only up to, in the end, to decide.

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Now we have understood how the Bishop of Rome and the Bishops of the world, as successors of the Apostles they received the mandate of Christ. We will say that in this mandate they have specifically committed themselves to three specific tasks with respect to the people of God: these tasks are called gifts (from Latin duty, task and also gift) and I'm the the task of teaching, the the task of sanctifying and the governing office / steersmanship.

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The task of teaching it is the duty to teach, transmit the teaching of Christ; it is also called the ordinary magisterium of the bishop. This magisterium / teaching is concretized by the bishop when he teaches with authority, which comes from Christ, and takes place when the bishop teaches concretely in matters of doctrine and morals and these teachings are in communion with the Supreme Pontiff and the Universal Church. This is a teaching of divine origin; then the the task of teaching it is the bishop's first task and concretely with it is meant to preach and teach these truths to the faithful. The faithfuls, from them, they are called to listen in active obedience with sincere filial adherence to their bishop even by asking questions, doubts and clarifications to better understand these teachings, to deepen the doctrine and live it better.

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With the task of sanctifying: the duty to lead all the people of God to holiness is indicated. The bishop is the bursar, that is, the one who distributes the grace of Christ and the Holy Spirit in equal parts in the Church; this happens in the administration of the sacraments and even more particularly in the Eucharistic celebration, where it is the Eucharist that makes the Church, it sanctifies it and unites it in catholicity; therefore the true presence, real, substance of Christ in the species of bread and wine unites all the faithful (clergy and faithful); at the same time it is the Church that makes the Eucharist, therefore the Church that administers and celebrates it.

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With the office of governing/governing the duty of the bishops to govern and govern the individual Churches is indicated local or dioceses; they have their own jurisdiction which is exercised for himself by each bishop in an ordinary way. By this we mean that the Divine power that every bishop immediately possesses does not provide for the mandatory delegation to other people: on a concrete level, But, the bishops can however decide to appoint mediators and delegates to better manage the territory, for example priests who perform the role of episcopal vicars, foranei, judicial and who therefore exercise various duties in the name of the bishop.

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In conclusion these three gifts /Duties they are implemented with the help of presbyters or priests, that despite not having the fullness of the sacred order like the bishop, they too participate and are jointly responsible for the three gifts. The the task of teaching afor example when they preach, they teach and govern God's people, especially in the parish. Here the parish priest is also the one who accompanies and therefore governs the People of God to holiness (exercise of office of government); finally the priest celebrates worship then administers the sacraments and prays for the needs of the people and at the same time administers the sacrament of confession (exercise of the task of sanctifying).

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Also wanting to synthetically analyze the first degree of the order, we can quickly describe the activity of deacons. They too fall within the ecclesial hierarchy because they are called to service: deacons is a Greek word that can be translated as servant. They still fall within the apostolicity of the Church, because they are assistants to the liturgy, they can have catechetical and para-liturgical duties, although their main task, their vocation is not the call to administer the sacraments in the same way as priests. Deacons participate in apostolicity as they are called to service, especially works of charity, the management of administrative activities of the Church. In some cases, however, the deacon can give the sacrament of baptism and bless the wedding. in some cases, however, the deacon can give the sacrament of baptism and bless the wedding.

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Rome, 18 January 2022

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For those wishing to learn more about the topic, I recommend reading these books:

Catechism of the Catholic Church, 553; 857 – 865.

Vatican Council II, (C)dogmatic institution Lumen gentium,18 – 23.

  1. McDowell, The fate of the apostles. Examining the martyrdom accounts of the closesest followers of Jesus, Routledge, 2016.
  2. Virgil, The resurrection of Jesus, Crossroads, Amazon publishing, 2020.

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