The question of Islamic monotheism

THE QUESTION OF ISLAMIC MOTOTEISMO

Just risen, Islam fell with incredible energy and boldness to conquer the world and began to appear in the territories round about Arabia, from Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Turkey, to the territories of North Africa, already Christians for centuries. Christianity found himself attacked by these armies fanatics. Islamic preachers and propagandists were accompanied by troops. In front of an attitude so aggressive, Christianity is frightened and saw no better solution than reacting with force. From here the Crusades.

Author John Cavalcoli OP
Author
John Cavalcoli OP
koran mecca
Mecca, sacred place of Islam

The current debate about the Islamic religion concerns about whether the God of the Koran is or is not the same God of Christians. The answer that faces many in the most immediate is that it is the same God, as, while we Christians believe in one Triune God, the Qur'an rejects it. In this seemingly obvious answer is hiding in fact a subtle misunderstanding, that need to be dispelled. To be corrected, rather we should say that we and the Muslims, says the Second Vatican Council, adore "The only God, living and subsisting, merciful and almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, who has spoken to men " (1). So actually our God and them is in itself the same.

Koran MeccaOne could speak of “gave false” for Muslims if the Koran would assign attributes to God that he does not agree. But this, whole, not true. If we compare the famous 99 attributes of Allah with those of St. Thomas Aquinas assigns to God in QUESTION, you will notice a remarkable concordance. If I think of a false god, I prefer to think of what Hegel or Rahner, rather than to that of Muhammad. The difference then is that there are two Gods: Our one, true, and the other their, false. And even two different gods. This would be an absurd polytheism, because in reality God is one. Both we and they believe in one God, which, as reflected by the attributes that the council assigns to the God of the Koran, is the true God.

The problem, therefore, of the contrast between Christian theology and the Koran is elsewhere. That we andKoran they are monotheists, believers in the true God, is out of the question. The problem lies in the fact that the Qur'an, in the name of the one God, rejects as polytheism and impiety Christian dogma of the Holy Trinity and in consequence of the Incarnation and Redemption. The Koran does not conceive how God can have a “Son”, because, to have a child, should have a wife. Note the ingenuity of this objection. Furthermore, the Qur'an considers absurd to think that God is simultaneously “one and three”. However, we must recognize that the objections of the Koran are not without their apparent meaningfulness, and so should be taken into account and they must respond. The decisive answer, as we know, is given by the Council of Chalcedon 451, which stands in God's divine nature a (fysis, the greek Nature ) by the person lace (Hypostasis, the greek hypostasis). As for the Son, it is clear from the New Testament revelation, we think especially the Johannine Logos, that should not be understood in relation to sex father-mother, since God is pure Spirit without sex, but a divine fatherhood asexual, therefore not male, similar to the Mind that produces the Idea or Thought, so that Christ in this view, is “Image of the Father and of his Substance Footprint” [EB 1,3], is ideal model and archetype by which and against which the Father has thought, designed, wanted and created the world.

Koran baby
traditional Friday prayers

The issue does not affect the existence but the knowledge of God, that is what we humans know or can know of God, what God has revealed of Himself. We all agree that God exists; the problem is to know the best way possible who God, what are its real attributes, and exactly what God has revealed to us of Self; also know what or whom we must trust the prophets and longed to have that sublime knowledge. It is here that there is a clash between Christians and Muslims: which for us Christians the maximum detector God is Jesus Christ in the Gospel, while for them is Mohammed in the Koran, thanks to the revelation received by the Archangel Gabriel. Already now here's a reason to contrast, because we Christians we wonder how could the same angel on one side announcing to Mary her divine motherhood and the other to Muhammad announce that Jesus is a mere prophet: an angel who contradicts himself in announcing the name of God in the divine revelation ordered to the salvation of humanity?

The fact remains that the God of the Koran is the true God, even if you could do some objections of some of hisHallah attributes. He is God, Yes, but met with mixed errors and far less perfect than we know through Christ as the Triune God. In addition to, the trouble is worse is that the Qur'an does not simply ignore the Trinitarian mystery, but claims to refute it according to God only known by the simple reason. However this did not prevent that in the XI-XIII Islam in terms of monotheism has produced metaphysicians and theologians senior, as Averroes, Al-Kindi, Avempace, Algazele, E Farabi, Avicenna, which, to give a philosophical foundation to the creator God taught by the Qur'an, have appropriately considered using Aristotle, hollowing out the distinction between essence and existence, metaphysically as characterizing the creature, as well as the concept of the absolutely Necessary, as characterizing the divine essence. And, as is known, it was the Arabs in the Middle Ages in Europe to introduce the knowledge of metaphysics and theology of Aristotle, which were later used by Christian doctors, as St. Thomas and Blessed Duns Scotus, to interpret the Christian dogma.

burning bush
Moses before the burning bush

Thel God of the Koran has obvious hooks to the God of the Old Testament, majestic and severe, God a more formidable that lovable, different, as we know, the God of the New Testament, merciful and compassionate, "Slow to anger, abounding in love", who wants to be the friend of man in Christ and live by the grace in his heart. Hence the Christian mysticism, rare phenomenon in Islam and often regarded with suspicion, though there also exists the Sufi tradition, the rest probably influenced by Christianity. The God of the Koran, though it is presented by the Qur'an as revealed by God himself, is the God of reason, ie the God whose existence and attributes can be proved by reason by applying the principle of causality and by analogy with creatures. As a matter of fact, therefore, all reasonable men know at least implicitly that God, therefore Muslims. To this God all are accountable for their actions to receive the award, or eternal punishment, as the Qur'an itself recognizes.

incarnation
… and the Word was made flesh

Then God the Son became incarnate, we know this only we Christians, whereas, as is known, Muslims reject, they make or do not realize, understand it or do not understand it, they have or do not have guilt. The Quran, where they do not err on God, does not teach anything that does not correspond to what the same natural reason can prove about God (2). The Islamic religion is born out of a need for religion and political and national unity of the Arab people, not satisfied by contact with humbling mighty Byzantine Empire, expression of a superior civilization, Christian, but trendy imperialist and divided by agonizing and complicated theological controversy, especially concerning the mystery of the Trinity and the sacraments.

Muhammad and gabriele
according to Islamic tradition, the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad

Mohammed, on the other hand, religious mood, energetic and practical, wanted to find a religiosity simpler than the complicated Byzantine Christianity and believed to have found the solution in a monotheism devoid of the Trinitarian mystery and all the consequences that it descended from the doctrinal, liturgical, moral and social. Also has great qualities of political organizer and military strategist, Muhammad was able to give to those needs of his people a satisfaction so suitable, guessed, convincing and fruitful, to allow his work to last even today after fourteen centuries and indeed to strengthen immensely with instilling in the religion of the Koran an extraordinary expansion force, that lasts to this day in various countries of the world, which belong to other people that have nothing to do with the Arabs.

The method of Islamic expansion, however, is very different from the Christian. While this isArabs 1 founded on faith in Christ, God-man, that draws men to Himself and the Father in heaven by force of argument and persuasion, of conduct integerrima, a sublime wisdom, the testimony of a generous love, miracles and prophecies, Mohammed, political leader, religious and military at a time, excites and motivates his followers to conquer the world, not only and not so much with the persuasiveness of the word, the wisdom of the judgments and the example of moral conduct rigorous, but especially with the force of arms, threatening divine vengeance to those who do not intend to accept the message of the Koran. As is known, to those who die in the holy war against the infidels, secured the paradise.

Arabs 2Just risen, Islam fell with incredible energy and boldness to conquer the world and began to appear in the territories round about Arabia, from Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Turkey, to the territories of North Africa, already Christians for centuries. Christianity found himself attacked by these armies fanatics. Islamic preachers and propagandists were accompanied by troops. In front of an attitude so aggressive, Christianity is frightened and saw no better solution than reacting with force. From here the Crusades. In addition to this, the common Christian felt enormous outrage and revulsion in front of an attack against so radical as his faith was more sacred and almost no one noticed that in the end the Koran does not preach idolatry or polytheism, ma un monotheism, heritage of that reason that all men possess, Christians and Muslims, all called by Christ to salvation. What then should be done? A work of discernment in the Quranic doctrine between true and false (3). The first was taken; the second, refuted. In addition to, in religion, with good evidence needed to prove the superiority of Christ Muhammad, not to underestimate the merits, extending beyond the indignant condemnation, and possibly it had to avoid total rejection and confrontation. The ideal would be that this task very serious if it had taken the Church, maybe the problem dedicating one or two ecumenical councils. Yet nothing. What was left in the hands of theologians, apologists and the Crusaders. And so the mutual incomprehension dragged on for centuries. It seemed that the whole problem to be resolved in how to defend against an epidemic. We forgot that the Muslims were called to receive the Gospel. Mohammed, some, was a great man; but could not be preferred to Christ. It is hard to understand how this man is even as large as you want as Muhammad, managed and still manages to polarize around him vast crowds of the faithful in sharp competition with man far more sublime, because it is God, that is our Lord Jesus Christ.

Thomas dispute with Averroes
Dissertation between Thomas Aquinas and the Arab philosopher Abu l-Walid Muhammad Ahmad ibn Rushd, better known as Averroes

In the thirteenth century were born the Dominicans and the Franciscans. It seemed that they could do something to bring Islam to Christ. They set out boldly for the Holy Land, left of the martyrs, but none of the two Orders in the end he managed to find the right method: the Dominicans were too drastic and 1291 were expelled, to be able to go back only to the late nineteenth century, but only to devote himself to biblical studies (4). The Dominican St. Raymond of Penyafort pushed St. Thomas Aquinas to write the famous treatise apologetic Summa contra Gentiles, marvelous work, full of rational arguments, but unfortunately that does not refute point by point, how it would be useful, errors of the Quran highlighting how you could accept in Christian theology, so in the end did not give appreciable results. The Franciscans, for their part, after the historic and moving meeting of St. Francis with the Sultan, have always been able to remain in Palestine to date, but only for giving up to convert Muslims, from these tolerated as second-class citizens. That being the case, the document of the Council on Islam is considered of epochal importance and incentive of a hope of reconciliation and conversion of Muslims to Christ. It had never happened so far that the Magisterium of the Church recognize so solemn theological truths contained in the Qur'an. And as these truths had already been defined elsewhere as belonging to the deposit of faith (5), is believed to be that here we are dealing with the doctrine of the infallible Magisterium, which fills the soul with immense hope about the future good results of the dialogue with Islam.

Muslim women
Veiled women

Koranic revelation of God is certainly rich in theological teachings, cro, Religious, ascetic, moral and social, but mostly it is a pounding succession and repetition almost breathless precepts of categorical and peremptory warnings and threatening in front of a faithful dumb, that should not do anything but listen, believe, obey and fight for the spread of Islam around the world, why this and not that Christian is the true, absolute and universal rule by divine worship (“Islam”), of virtue and salvation of man. As for the text of the Koran, it is traditionally understood as the Word of God in a way that does not admit that it is formulated or embodied in a human form or mode, to offer such aspects related to time or historical contingencies. This fundamentalist way of interpreting the Koran, which incidentally is not typical of all schools, has the disadvantage that it is to be understood as the Word of God conceptions, uses or practices today ineligible or inhuman, such as the penalty of retaliation or stoning or a conception degrading and humiliating women.

72 virgins
Heaven according to the promise of Muhammad, where they will be granted the right men 72 virgins in prize

A great value humanism Koranic is given by the clear awareness of the eternal destiny man: the Paradiso hell, even if it lacks the dogma of the beatific vision, supreme fruit of Christ's grace, and you stop to purely human enjoyments, including sexual. Unlike humans biblical or Christian, that communicates freely and confidentially with God as the son with the father or friend with friend in Christ, the Muslim believer always seems a soldier at attention, that does not has to do is execute the orders. There, some, prayer, asking for help and God's forgiveness; but in the end it is nothing more than the asking God for the fulfillment of a relentless desire fatalistic, that is completely divorced from the desires, by free will or by personal initiatives of the faithful. So either willingly or by force, perhaps with military conquest, the Koran must assert itself in the world. Those who receive, well, but who does not accept it or resists and does not convert, deserves death or at least to be a slave to a Muslim. And who converts to Islam, must absolutely remain faithful, under the supervision of the civil-religious, and also of the same social and family environment, because, if you change your mind, such as becoming a Christian, is excluded from the community and can also be executed.

Ernesto Vecchi of Islam
S. AND. Mons. Ernesto Vecchi, Auxiliary bishop of Bologna, to listen to his interview on the relationship between Islamic culture and Italian, [click on the picture to start the video]

In Islamic regimes, at least in principle, there is no right to religious freedom. Wanting to use a joke, though it is very serious, “or eat soup or skip the window”. Today Islam uses, to penetrate in Christian countries, a method soft and capillary, as for example the phenomenon of immigrants. But these, far from converting to Christianity, cling to their religion and demand by the public authorities with considerable tenacity that they are accorded the structures for the exercise of their religion. Indeed, where there is a right to religious freedom, Muslims know how to skillfully take advantage for their interests, but not grant to Christians living in their countries.

absence
“Absence”, René Magritte, 1966

A major shortcoming of humanism Koranic is the absence of that consciousness of human weakness and tendency to sin that is in Christianity from the dogma of original sin. Man Koranic, not realizing until the end of the severity of the bad human actions, it is not even able to put an adequate remedy, the more he does not know the sacraments, ecclesial life and the saving grace given to us by Christ. This does not mean that those who are in good faith to receive this grace without knowing. Also there may be a baptism of desire. With all that is present in ethics Islamic love of virtue and hatred of vice, but, Dieting those assumptions, we can well understand how the evangelical virtues to be far superior in principle to virtue Koranic, without those wanting to make comparisons of people, much less claim to peer into the shrine of consciences. The Islamic religion over the centuries has been the promoter of civilization, science, Art, culture, of human virtues, economic welfare, of political organization and state, but you can not even compare to the boundless wealth of civilization born in Europe with Christianity, civilization from the rich and infinite effects and results in moral, juridical, religious, scientific, technical, artistic, political, social, economic, of which uses plenty of the same Islamic world perhaps to oppose and boycott the West.

The comparison between Christ and Muhammad is imposed today in an increasingly blatant and inevitable. Thejesus for Islamic trouble is that Catholic theology suffers today, especially in the field of Christology, an unprecedented crisis in its entire history, while intellectuals and scholars feel the charm of Islamic, as was the case for the gnostic traditionalist Rene Guenon, as well as the spirit of the Islamic Community, as was the case for the communist philosopher Roger Garaudy, both converts to Islam in the last century. In the field then it is depressing to see a Catholic christologist however learned as one Schillebeeckx, develop a Christology in which the divinity of Christ is absent, reduced to the level of a simple “eschatological prophet” and “human person” inhabited by God. And’ a way to please Muhammad.

 

david haines
David Haines running through the work of Islamic terrorists [click on the picture to start the video]

In Islamic regimes, at least in principle, there is no right to religious freedom. Wanting to use a joke, though it is very serious, “or eat soup or skip the window”. Today Islam uses, to penetrate in Christian countries, a method soft and capillary, as for example the phenomenon of immigrants. But these, far from converting to Christianity, cling to their religion and demand by the public authorities with considerable tenacity that they are accorded the structures for the exercise of their religion. Indeed, where there is a right to religious freedom, Muslims know how to skillfully take advantage for their interests, but not grant to Christians living in their countries.

The Islamic reality is extremely composite and often contradictory. If Islam is a part of the object of admiration for his discipline and his religious fervor, on the other hand gives rise to an understandable wave of indignation and horror as the Islamic terrorists are perpetrating in countries of Christian minority. This is likely to stir in certain circles of the frantic reactions, who do nothing but fan the flames of hatred that has nothing of the Christian, but that brings us back to the darkest times of the endless wars medieval. However, must also take into account that part of Islam reasonable and peaceful, who will seek to solve the problem of terrorism, in accordance with the heartfelt exhortations of Pope. Instead, you must give up absolutely visions unilateral, resentful and passionate, and the opposition front, often born of ignorance and a misunderstanding desire to react to violence and to defend Christian civilization. However, there are many Muslims in Western countries fully integrated into society that welcomed them and contribute loyally with their work to the development and welfare of those countries. On this delicate point of dialogue with Islam remains valid teaching of the Council and of the post-conciliar Popes until the present Pontiff. The Council's teaching should be completed with an accurate description of the errors of Islam, that we must refute, waves illuminate the faithful of Mohammed with the light of Christ. Do not worry: in the conversion of Muslims, although in fourteen centuries they have proven to be interested in Christ. But even we Christians must make an examination of conscience and ask ourselves seriously if we were against them always true apostles, true witnesses, real evangelizers. Undoubtedly, what you miss and that it is urgent to develop, is a systematic plan of evangelization of Muslims, trusting that Christ sent us to proclaim the Gospel to all men and that He had given all his life, gives everyone a chance of salvation.

Fontanellato, 12 January 2015

___________________________________________________
(1) Our age, No. 3.
(2) This teaching, we find in the First Vatican Council, can be considered as the foundation of the dialogue with Islam, promoted by Vatican II.
(3) Pope St. Gregory VII in sec. XI wrote but a wise conciliatory letter to Anazir, King of Mauritania, cited by the document of the Council; but it is a more unique than rare.
(4) With the founding of the famous Biblical School of Jerusalem by the Father Joseph Lagrange
(5) For example, the Fourth Lateran Council and the First Vatican Council.

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5 thoughts on "The question of Islamic monotheism

  1. Rev. Father,
    Thanks for this article very lucid and clear. After a first reading, I consider synthetic, Skinny, perhaps a little too “merciful” the conclusion. Can return to the specific point, answering the following observations?
    Noto underscore the failure of an important: one related to the religious authority of reference. For Christianity, the reference is the Pope and the Church of Rome and Rome versus contra and have developed differentiated and all other Christian churches. Islam seems to me that this is missing, with everything that goes with it, both in the spiritual and religious ( structure, ecclesiology, doctrine, theological research, pastoral,daily practice etc.. ) both in education, social, economic, in terms of moral principles, ethical, rights, freedom, democracy, evolution of costumes, culture, opening, cohabitation, proselytism etc..
    Maybe later, to propose other issues. Thanks.

  2. Rev. Father,

    randomly see now Article http: //www.vittoriomessori.it/blog/2015/01/14/la-vera-radice-dellestremismo/ and I see that with greater deliberation and owned by me exposes many of the concerns that I have just exposed.

  3. Reverend Father John Cavalcoli,

    that his article is a masterful lesson of balance and Christian charity, but also to treat the truth. I think that the Isle of Patmos has become a reference point for many readers, for what I feel to say to your friends and many admirers.
    These days we read everything, species signed by commentators who are going crazy for the network, about the case of the French satirical newspaper whose epilogue was a massacre.
    To hit me, but, was the French Jesuit journal that published the cartoons against Catholics

    http://www.ilfoglio.it/articoli/v/124606/rubriche/etudes-charlie-hebdo-dice-un-gesuita-francese-quando-la-compagnia-era-ancora-cattolica.htm

    Island you have not written anything about this case, but if they were possible to do so would certainly help.

    Greetings happy continuation.

    1. Dear Luca.

      Father John Cavalcoli responded with an article that we have just entered and that will be followed below by another in a few days.
      How do you see, This request has been challenging and our Dominican theologian did not hesitate to fulfill it.

      Best wishes and continue to follow us and to spread our online magazine.

  4. A question for all three priests who have given rise to this “Virtual city”.
    And’ a question which springs from reading the following sentence by Fra Giovanni Cavalcoli:
    “What then should be done? A work of discernment in the Quranic doctrine between true and false (3). The first was taken; the second, refuted.”

    That the false (plenty) present in the Koran went refuted: What is evident.
    The rest, false always be refuted, regardless of its presence in the Koran, when those who cultivate in himself (with a degree of voluntary and conscious rejection of the True God only knows), that is “in internal forum”: wants to take it all the more “auctioneer” and “herald” frantic, that is “in the external forum”.
    And false is rebuttable (ie OBJECTIVELY provable as false) by definition.
    And, vice versa: is by definition irrefutable Truth.
    In fact, Jesus was not EVER refuted by those who claimed to know the Revelation given by the Living God until then.
    My question focuses instead on what is in the Qur'an TRUE (and far be it from me to say that it is entirely false: if only because, If they were, would not last fourteen centuries now).
    Brother John Cavalcoli says that TRUE, present in the Koran: "Va subject".
    What does this expression?
    What is that "assumes"?
    What is already 'in itself and that it has already' in itself?
    Or what, NOT YET despite being in itself and that it has NOT YET itself: HOWEVER it is compatible with it?
    Or you "assume" that which although GIA 'in itself and that it has already' in itself: HOWEVER is NOT YET come to light? And this came to light occurs, note, when you "assume" from outside itself?

    Since we're talking about truth: is no need to stress that it is only compatible with itself. And is radically incompatible with any falsehood, if only one "iota" or an "icing on the cake".
    But it is also clear that this truth in the Koran and that Brother John reminds us that goes "assumed": makes us wonder about ourselves, As Christians.
    And that can go quest'interrogarci SINO to ask whether we have already 'left lead to the "whole truth": even though we have been promised by Him who And 'the Truth, as well as the Way and the Life.

    Thank you in advance for your answers and your priestly blessings.

    +Station

    Maranatha

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