The historicist ECCLESIOLOGY HANS KÜNG
[…] Küng is the inventor of the conceptual frameworks that govern the many revolutionary proposals advanced in recent months by theologians and representatives of the worldwide on the occasion of the Extraordinary Synod on the Family called by Pope Francis.
Il teologo Svizzero Hans Küng, in its long history the human and intellectual, he never abandoned his "dress scene", that is the "bad teacher" at odds with the authentic magisterium of the Catholic Church. His favorite themes are those who yesterday were replicated by the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, and today they are vulgarized pseudo-prophetic literature of Enzo Bianchi. Are the reform of the Church, the abolition of papal primacy, a "new" moral addressed to implement the "sexual revolution" sessantottino - mold Freudian-Marxist -, granting the priesthood to women, l'euthanasia. Lately Küng, ill with Parkinson's, has come to announce the intention to use it himself assisted suicide, in imitation of Cardinal Martini.
Küng's career started in the sixties with significant interventions in the preparatory phase of the Second. With the tempo andar, its positions open to contestation have found more and more space in newspapers, with articles or interviews focused on this or that topic, thus gaining a significant reputation not only in the theological circles, but also among the general public. One of the joints of his battle and controversy was and is the virulent challenge encyclical Humanae Vitae Paul VI: ideal sacramental - and therefore certainly divine, but for this very mysterious - the family and procreation Christian Küng is reduced by a restoration of medieval, up to accuse the document Pauline and subsequent claims of the popes on the topic, "The main cause of the spread of AIDS in the world".
The controversy of Küng, years, invested primarily the pontificate of John Paul II St. [see which, which, which] and then Benedict XVI [see which, which] the first considered reactionary, the second even schismatic. But it is the blessed Paul VI, the pope who brought to fruition the Vatican, raged the controversy of the Swiss theologian, who could not tolerate his genuine insight reform of the Council, as opposed to an interpretation misleading - because historicist and humanistic - that was leveraging the "council of mass media», how keenly he had to say, then Benedict XVI.
Küng is the inventor of the conceptual frameworks that govern the many revolutionary proposals advanced in recent months by theologians and representatives of the worldwide on the occasion of the Extraordinary Synod on the Family called by Pope Francis. It will therefore be instructive to draw a doctrinal ecclesiology of the Swiss theologian. The ecclesiology of Hans Küng in fact deserves to be well known today because it has no theological weight marginal, indeed is precisely the philosophical-religious ideology dominant in the Catholic. The conceptual categories and the main sources of literature are those of the Lutheran Reformation and the religious philosophy of the matrix Lutheran, represented by the system in the nineteenth century idealism of Georg Friedrich Hegel and in the twentieth century by the "dogma of the Church" - die Kirchliche Dogmatics — Karl Barth. The cornerstones of this philosophical-religious ideology are represented by historicism and dialectics immanentistic. The Catholic Church is thus interpreted as a historic moment of the dialectic of the Spirit - understood, this, not so much as the Agion Pneuma of Catholic dogma but rather as "the spirit» by Hegel —, which aims at a development in the near future that will see, as a first step, the removal of doctrinal barriers between Catholics and Protestants - with the full acceptance of the Lutheran view of "justification by grace alone" - and the creation of a single "Church of Christ" (Ecumenism). At last, as the second and final stage, the establishment of a "universal Church" based solely on ethical-political (the 'Weltethik»). This ideology permeates today, clearly identifiable as background a careful conceptual analysis, most of the proposals, doctrinal or pastoral, Catholic theologians most prominent, cominciare and Karl Rahner, that the same Hans Küng considers a master in theology and a model adopting Hegel's dialectic (1).
These teologi Catholics, many of whom became bishops, exerted a well-documented influence on the work of Vatican II, to then assume the role (arbitrary) the only authoritative interpreters of the Council in the next fiftythe, up to, today, the preparation and conduct of the work of the Synod on the possible changes to the dual prasis pastoral in relation to the problems of families.
A prominent figure of this theological current was Cardinal Walter Kasper, supported by most of the German and Italian by other theologians became cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi as Dionigi Tettamanzi and. His argument most characteristic, in line with the proposals of the theological-moral Hans Küng, is the need to accelerate the process of reform of the Church with a stronger adaptation to the moral conscience of the "men of our time" and alignment with the practice of ecclesial communities Protestant and Orthodox. In his speeches Leitmotiv is the need to de-dogmatise the Catholic Church, starting with a new pastoral family is separate and independent from the doctrine on the sacraments, temporarily not abolished but kept aloof (2). In Italy, the ideology of ecclesiological Hans Küng, especially as regards "ecumenical", is disclosed and constantly revived by Enzo Bianchi, "Prior" of the community of Bose, much heard by the majority of bishops and even the Holy See (3).
THE CONDITIONS DOCTRINE OF THE PROJECT
KUNGHIANO OF REFORM
To understand, in its theoretical and its practical implications, the ecclesiology of Hans Küng, it is essential to mention some biographical data, on the basis of the Swiss theologian works in which he narrated the process of his intellectual formation (4). From these data will be very clearly the nature Lutheran-idealistic reformers of his intentions and his ideal of Catholic Church life, based on its particular conception of the priesthood and pastoral, present in all his work, from youth Justification the works of his maturity as Existiert Gott? and the "manifesto" conclusive "future Church", ie the Project Weltethos.
Hans Küng, born in 1928, is formed in a setting where you practice done some "inter-religious dialogue", by the contact quotidiyear, in the same class, with Catholics, Protestants and Jews (5). Although he had thought of becoming an architect medicoo, "Tended to something that was both more spiritual and more practical, more useful to young, so he decided to become a Catholic priest and theologian » (6). In following, these trends will become much more pronounced, that will have more resonance and evidence in its production. The show works like Truthfulness and Being a Christian, and then his activity in Rome as chaplain of employees and Sursee as a preacher in hospital (7).
Arriving in Rome, in 1948, Küng comes as a seminarian at the Pontifical German College and studied philosophy and theology at the Gregorian University. The Germanic, in those years, There were scholars such as Emerich Coreth, Wilhelm Klein, In. Core, all engaged in the study of Hegel's Philosophy. Just at that time, in 1952, Coreth had published an essay, entitled The dialectical Being in Hegel's Logic. As stated in the same Küng, from him he learned to interpret the priestly spirituality and pastoral zeal in dialectical terms and storicistici, in frontal opposition with the doctrinal directives of the Magisterium of Pius XII, which included the recommendation not to abandon metaphysics and logic inherent in the Catholic theological tradition:
"He probably would not have lasted in those seven years without my spiritual father to the German College, Father Wilhelm Klein, which - prepared by a multiple activities as a professor of philosophy, as Provincial of the Jesuit Province of Northern Germany and as a visitor to the Society of Jesus from Scandinavia to Japan - carrying a horizon of views rare and very large […]. He was also the man who first made me careful about many philosophical and theological problems burning. I spoke with him especially of Hegel and then Karl Barth. And at first I showed him my brief theological manuscripts, that redigevo alone and that he mostly before he cut down in the most cutting edge and then force me to really think about a dialectical, that included already in the synthesis of the opposite " (8).
And it was Klein who led "Decisively" the young Küng to choose as a topic of doctoral thesis theology Barth. In another book, Küng, thanked for his help in drafting the text, remembers with gratitude Coreth, Small, Kern as his "venerable masters to the Germanic-Hungarian College in Rome», that, together with other, "I have given suggestions decisive for my theology in general and for the understanding of Hegel in particular ' (9).
Over the years, ranging from 1951 on Küng is mainly dedicated to the study of dialectical theology of Barth, and the theologian draws in Basel 1955 the licentiate thesis under the guidance of one of his professors of dogmatics at the Gregorian, ie Maurizio Flick, who would later become famous for his theory on the reduction of the dogma of original sin to a mere myth of origins. And Barth Küng recognizes then be grateful for having allowed to range overere the properly theological significance of Hegel's philosophy, then erasing not only the distinction between theology Catholic and Lutheran theology but also between theology and philosophy. Justification. The Doctrine of Karl Barth and a Catholic reflection is the first work of Küng and demonstrates the passion with which the theologians of Tübingen he devoted himself to assimilate the barthiano thought in the seven-year stay at the Collegio Germanico; the same Karl Barth wanted to emphasize then publicly:
"My joy comes first of all from the opening and the firmness with which she, at the German College in Rome […] as well as the brave fellow he studied my books and made it clear to himself dialectically the theological phenomenon that riscontrava » (10).
Another author passionately studied was de Lubac, then in the middle of the inevitable controversy for his book Supernatural. Historical studies (Paris 1946) that questioned the traditional doctrine about the gratuity of the supernatural. Such disputes, together with those on other issues relating to polygenism, evolutionism, Communism, led to the resolute stance of Pius XII in his encyclical The human race (1950). The Catholic scholar Antonio Russo, University of Trieste, admirer of Henri de Lubac, and therefore very understanding in regards to Küng, paints bleak the situation doctrinal, pastoral and discipline in the pre-conciliar Church, identifying with the vision of the Church that was typical of the progressives, and with them the young seminarian Swiss Hans Küng:
"In those same years, and then, the spiritual atmosphere prevailing in Rome is anything but open to new. Magazines such as The Catholic Civilization host not infrequently articles as Perennial vitality of the Papacy; Action pacificatrice of the Papacy in old age; Peacemaking and charitable of the Papacy in the age contemporanea; The Vatican beacon of cultural progress. Excommunicate the Communists and those who offer their support; and announce solemn pilgrimages, acts of devotion to Mary and "enthusiasm even plebiscitary"; proclaimed the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Holy Year of 1950, the Marian Year of 1954. The young theologian, anyway, lived continuously in contact with both the "Roman theology" with both the spiritual and cultural environment of the Germanic, being uncomfortable and threatening to wreck his Roman conversio. So much so that his readings are oriented towards the deepening of positions and authors such as Hegel, De Lubac, but especially of Karl Barth, the study of which will shape it in a sustainable way, because the open "access to evangelical theology ", pushing to get passionate for theology » (11).
As si Sciences, the influence received from Küng in the early years of its formation is decidedly Lutheran mold, and Lutheran is the conception of the Church and of ecclesial theology from the beginning that orients his studies. The result is a theological method, which proceeds from the substantial elimination of the Magisterium of the Church – especially the Pontificalor - as a basis for the scientific interpretation of the faith. Even the concrete life of the Church - the liturgy, popular piety - is seen as "outside", as something to be overcome or eliminated altogether because appartenent to the "Church of the past ', that should leave room for the "Church of the Future".
Küng warns a bitter annoyance to Marian devotion that the Church professes and practice, and conseguentance with is brought to devalue, not only of popular devotion but also a solemn dogmatic as that of the 1954 relative to the Assumption into Heaven, body and soul, Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Having disconoscithe UTO The power of teaching of the hierarchical Church, Küng instead of the Magisterium adopted as the guiding principle for theology, ie for the interpretation of what Küng always calls "the christlischer faith» (more "the Catholic faith»), the thought of Karl Barth Lutheran, which in turn introduces Küng to a practice of theology inspired exclusively to the Hegelian dialectic.
THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEOLOGICAL
ADOPTION OF Dialectic
It should be noted at this point that these methodological premises make the discourse on Church done by Küng is not exactly theological: none of his thesis can be considered - from a point of view rigorously critical-epistemological - as a hypothesis scientifically admissible, as a theological quaestio held, because the method he follows is by no means typical of ecclesial theology but rather to a "threadsofia religious ", in the precise sense that I give to this term in my treatise on True and false theology (12). and that the thought of Küng is to be considered mere "religious philosophy" is determined not only by the fact that is inspired by Hegel's dialectic - which reduces explicitly Christian theology to philosophy, and this one "Phenomenology of Spirit» (13) – , but also by the fact that even the thought of Barth transcends the narrow methodological limitations of the "religious philosophy"; indeed, as I reiterated in a dialogue with the epistemological Brunero Gherardini (14), the assumption of a Lutheran "Sola Scriptura», with the exclusion a priori of the Magisterium from the scientific determination of the object of theology (what else can it be but the faith of the Church), means that what the scholar calls "the christlischer faith"The"the Word of God"Remains undetermined, or otherwise determined only by subjective choices, and then reduced to data obtainable only from the uncertain phenomenology of individual consciousness or historical-Community, that which is entrusted to interpret Scripture without the need for an ecclesiastical magisterium. Now, you can not develop a science without a clear determination of its specific object, which then depends on the adoption of the method more appropriate to interpret. A theology that does not have as its object the faith of the Church (and not the "feeling of faith" subjectively someone, inside or outside of the Church) can not be considered "theology" in the Catholic sense of the term, ie as ecclesial theology. And, within that theology, the ecclesiology of those who are not directly connected and essentially the Church's faith to the Magisterium of the Church is reduced to an ambiguous religious discourse which then ends up adopting the themes and rhetorical modes in a socio-political ideology, as was the case with the latest works by Hans Küng, as Projeckt Weltethos, that very little differ, in substance, by similar works of propaganda universalist ideology of the theosophical inspiration or Masonic. Indeed, for explicit admission of Küng, only after meeting with the works of Barth:
"I realized, what can be theology as a science. Barth kritischkonstruktive confrontation with the entire Christian tradition […] sat for me lasting yardsticks theological thought and action " (15).
To put it even more explicit, and even more stringent in terms of epistemological, the ecclesiology of Hans Küng not be considered as "a theology with some mistakes": it is rather the negation of the "theology as a science" (theology as science), as a way to refer to the Church of Christ - that mystery of the Christian faith that the science and technology should take as their subject-specific and take into consideration - clearly shows that Küng refers to another. When parla di "ecumenism", It seems that simply refers to something – he detectable sociologically locates in the "lowest common denominator" of the various "confessions of faith" produced by Christian communities. This something sociologically need detectable then – just like Hegel in designing its historical synthesis of religious consciousness – to develop the project of "universal religion", that would mark the passing of the Catholic Church and all other Christian denominations, dialectical unity with Islam, with Buddhism, with Hinduism and also with atheism. Requests today Küng moves to speed up the "reform of the Church" (the annulment of the ecclesiastical magisterium and especially the primacy of the Pope, the synodical government in the Church, abolition of clerical celibacy, the admission of women to the ordained priesthood, the recognition of same-sex marriage, acceptance of euthanasia, etc.) are nothing but preparing what will be unavoidably tomorrow, will be fully realized when the fate inherent in the very essence of the Church as a phenomenon (= HandstimeTazion momentary) Spirit. Nothing different, both in terms of ch and concepts, from what Hegel said in early work The Spirit of Christianity and its fate; but nothing like what is a speech propriamente theological, that begins with the unconditional acceptance of the truth revealed (the dogma) e continues with the elaborateaction of rational interpretation hypothesis that privileged instrument metaphysics. As he rightly observed at the beginning of the twentieth century Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, at odds with the modernist theologians and cattolici believe we can reconcile the dogma with the evolutionism of Bergson, the truth of the feof, contained in the "dogmatic formulas", can not be understood by believers if not based on evidence of "common sense", that are substantially metaphysical in nature and which in their turn constitute a prerequisite for the rational scientific interpretation of the dogma, ie for theology (16). Indeed, without metaphysics, without the logic that it is intrinsically linked, especially without the principle of non-contradiction, the dogma is no longer the divine truth preserved by the Church, but can and should be contradicted dialectically, in accordance with the cultural and social changes (17). This is what comes to support Küng in the church (1967) and in Infallible? A request (1970):
"Every formula of faith, not only the individual but also in the whole church, remains imperfect, incomplete, enigmatic […] This fragmentation not only based on the character often polemical and narrow doctrinal formulations of church, but the necessarily dialectical character of every human affirmation of the truth […]. Every proposition can be true and false » (18).
So it is not surprising that the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith emanate the following This orientation:
"The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith fulfilling its duty to promote and safeguard the doctrine of the faith and of costume throughout the church has submitted to the two works of Professor Hans Küng, The church and Infallible? A question, that have been published in several languages. With two different letters, dated 16 May 1971 and 12 July 1971, the congregation notified the author of the difficulties he found in his opinions and asked him to explain in writing how such views do not contradict Catholic doctrine. In a letter dated 4 July 1973 the congregaziProfessor Küng one offered a further opportunity to explain their ideas through an interview. With a sua lettera part 4 September 1974 prof. Küng also left out this possibility. On the other hand with his answers did not feel that some opinions about the church does not conflict with Catholic teaching but continued to support them even after the publication of the declaration Mysterium ecclesiae. Therefore, in order not remain doubts about the doctrine that the Catholic Church professes and because the faith of Christians is not in any way tarnished, this sacred congregation, invoking the doctrine of the magisterium shown in the statement Mysterium ecclesiae states: In the works of Professor sopradette. Hans Küng some opinions that are contained, in different degree, are opposed to the doctrine of the Catholic Church, which must be professed by all the faithful. We note only the following most important now apart from a judgment about some others that Prof. Küng defends. The opinion that at least puts in doubt the dogma of the faith of the Church's infallibility and reduces it to a certain fundamental truths of the Church in indefectibility, with the ability to err in its judgments that the magisterium of the Church definitively teaches to believe, contradicts the doctrine defined by Vatican Council I and confirmed by the Second Vatican Council. Another error that seriously affects the doctrine of Professor. Küng regards his opinion of the Magisterium of the Church. In reality, he does not adhere to the authentic magisterium of the genuine concept according to which the bishops in the church are "authentic teachers, endowed with the authority of Christ and preach to the people committed to them the faith they must believe and put into practical life "; In fact, "the task of authentically interpreting the word of God, written or handed on, has been entrusted exclusively to the living teaching office of the Church". Even the opinion already insinuated by Professor. Küng nel book The Church and according to which the Eucharist, at least in cases of necessity, can be validly consecrated by baptized without priestly order, can not be reconciled with the doctrine of the Councils of the Lateran IV and Vatican II " (19).
In 1979 Hans Küng accustom a revocata let missio canonical on the teaching of Catholic theology.
AN APPRAISAL OF THE TEACHINGS on ecclesiology
The ecclesiology of Hans Küng historicist, popularized by many authors nonfiction theological, found a note in a timely condemnation of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. It directly concerns not the Swiss theologian but an Indian follower, the Jesuit Anthony De Mello. In the document of the Congregation, made known in 1998 — the same year that Pope John Paul II published the Encyclical Fides et ratio — we read that in the works of De Mello is observed:
"A progressive distancing from the essential contents of the Christian faith. The revelation took place in Christ, he substitutes an intuition of God without form or image, to speak of God as a pure void. […] Religions, including the Christian, are one of the main obstacles to the discovery of truth. This truth, of altronde, is never defined in its precise contents. To think that the God of their religion is the only one is, simply, fanaticism. "God" is seen as a cosmic reality, vague and onnipresente. His personal character is ignored and in practice denied ".
This is the Hegelian conception of the Absolute which is not transcendent, it is not personal, but is identified with the Holy Spirit and thus become dialectic with History. The Catholic Church, once denied the absolute value of revealed truth, is relativized and reduced to a transitory moment in the development of consciousness of humanity destined to unity based on global ethics. Christ - says the document signed by Josef Ratzinger - is to be considered "As a master alongside others. […] Is not recognized as the Son of God, but simply as the one who teaches us that all men are children of God ".
In this complaint the Magisterium meeting the a priori condemnation of that 'atheistic humanism I have noted many times in the writings of another follower of the Swiss theologian, ie Enzo Bianchi, Christ comes to qualify as a simple "creature" [Ed. See previous article by Antonio Livi, which].
- Cf. Hans Küng, Incarnation. An Introduction to Hegel's Theological Thought as Prolegomena to a future Christology, Verlag Herder, Freiburg - Basel - Vienna 1970, p. 643: "In the more recent Catholic theology was Karl Rahner to open new orizzoni […]. The spirit that distinguished hovers in the background of this study […] others do not is whether or not Hegel, although there also influences Heideggerians. His sporadic attempts to distance himself from Hegel in subtopics only confirm this fact " (my translation).
- See Antonio Livi, in The New Compass Daily, 10 October 2014.
- See Antonio Livi, in The New Compass Daily, 10 February 2012.
- Cf. Hans Küng, Fought for freedom. Memoirs, Munich 2002; The same, Controversial Truth. Memoirs, Munich 2007.
- Cf. Hans Küng, The justification, Trad.. en. T's. Federici, EDITRICE Queriniana, Brescia 1969, p. 21.
- Hans Küng. Way and Work, a cura di Haring und K. (J). Stuffed, Piper Verlag, Munich 1978, p. 123.
- Cf. Hans Küng, interview with A. In. Scheiwiller, "Awkward Confederates: Hans Küng the faithful church reformer ", in Week, 14 June 1972, p. 23.
- Hans Küng. Way and Work, cit., p. 128.
- Hans Küng, Incarnation of God in Hegel. Prolegomena to a Future Christology, Trad.. it., Queriniana, Brescia 1970, p. 10.
- Karl Barth, Geleitbrief, in Hans Küng, Justification. The Doctrine of Karl Barth and a Catholic reflection, John Publisher, Einsiedeln 1957 cit.; Trad.. en: Letter to the author, in Hans Küng, The justification, cit., p. 8.
- Antonio Russo, "Hans Kung and theology as science", in Study, 106 (2010), pp. 185-206, here p. 188.
- See Antonio Livi, True and false theology. How to distinguish the authentic "science of faith" from an equivocal "religious philosophy", Leonardo da Vinci's publishing house, Rome 2012.
- See Antonio Livi, True and false theology, cit., pp. 141-148.
(14) See Antonio Livi, Some clarification, in dialogue with fans and critics, in Truth of Theology. Discussion of logic aletica from "True and false theology ", Antonio Livi, by Marco Hounds and John Covino, Leonardo da Vinci's publishing house, Rome 2014, pp. 167-185.
(15) Hans Küng. Way and Work, cit., p. 137.
(16) CFR Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, Common Sense, philosophy of being and dogmatic formulas, Beauchesne, Paris 1912; Trad.. it.: The Common sense, the philosophy of being and dogmatic formulas, edited by Antonio Livi and Mario Padovano, Leonardo da Vinci's publishing house, Rome 2013.
(17) See in this regard Antonio Livi, Rationality of faith in Revelation. Philosophical analysis in the light of logic aletica, Leonardo da Vinci's publishing house, Rome 2005.
(18) Hans Küng, The Church, Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1967, p. 397.
(19) Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Warning, 15 February 1975.
Louis Bouyer, "Ecumenism without overpasses», in Catholic Studies, 13 (1969), pp. 30-35.
Pier Carlo Lad, «Here's Hans Küng», in Catholic Studies, 22 (1979), pp. 549-54.
Luigi Ibizugbe, Heretic Hans Küng. Christological heresies in the work "Christ sein", Editions Civilization, Brescia 1977.
Luigi Ibizugbe, Theology and Christology. "God exists", in Hans Küng, Editions Quadrivium Genoa 1982.
Antonio Love, "Dogma and Teaching after the" case Küng '", in Catholic Studies, 24 (1980), pp. 171-177.
Antonio Love, True and false theology. How to distinguish the authentic "science of faith" from an equivocal "religious philosophy", second edition increased, Leonardo da Vinci's publishing house, Rome 2012, pp. 241-246.
Emanuele Samek Lodovico, "The infallible dogma of Han Küng», in Catholic Studies, 16 (1971), pp. 171-177.
Emanuele Samek Lodovico, "The way to Hegel to Hans Küng», in Catholic Studies, 16 (1971), pp. 243-251.
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