The soothsayer Tiresias and Christianity: the reality of disability, between joy and hope

— Theologica —

THE SOOTER TIRESIA AND CHRISTIANITY: THE REALITY OF DISABILITY, BETWEEN HOPE AND JOY

The disability, certainly falls within the theme of suffering, of those who are afflicted and who will be comforted, according to the evangelical beatitude. Persons affected by disabilities are fully included in those who are welcomed into the bosom of Trinitarian love. The world of culture, of philosophical and anthropological reflection has always been fascinated and at the same time shaken by this theme.

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Author:
Gabriele Giordano M. Scardocci, o.p.

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Ulysses and the soothsayer Tiresias

One of the strong themes which involve a lot on an emotional and intellectual level every faithful, by the individual believer, to the priest, from the man of culture to the theologian, it is certainly the issue of disability. To be precise, there is no disability in the abstract, but there are people with physical or mental disabilities, which can be congenital, innate or acquired.

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I would like to sketch biblical-theological reflections on the theme of disability. I am aware, together with the whole Christian tradition, that the mystery of human evil and suffering remains a mystery and can never be fully disclosed. But it can be contemplated, scrutinized with an eye of faith, hope and charity and be placed in the highest and greatest plan of God's Plan.

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In this article first of all we will make some historical considerations on one of the most famous and oldest disabled people in history, the soothsayer Tiresias. subsequently, we will move on to the theme of suffering in the Christian sphere.

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A DISABLED PERSON KNOWN TO ANTIQUITY. TIRESIA, BLIND SOOTER.

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The disability, certainly falls within the theme of suffering, of those who are afflicted and who will be comforted, according to the evangelical beatitude. Persons affected by disabilities are fully included in those who are welcomed into the bosom of Trinitarian love. The world of culture, of philosophical and anthropological reflection has always been fascinated and at the same time shaken by this theme. So much so that she has recently allowed herself to be questioned by disability, trying to build a reflection. First of all I would like to point out the text by Gian Antonio Stella: SeveralThe long battle of the disabled to change history, recently published by the well-known journalist of Corriere della Sera. With a journalistic slant, Stella tries to do a excursus starting from different historical figures of people with disabilities who have really proposed their innovative experience for the time of history in which they lived. I would not like to dwell on this text though [1].

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For some time the Sicilian culture it has lost one of its most fruitful writers, Andrea Camilleri. Almost like a testament, along with some books now out, the author of Porto Empedocle, known for creating the character of Inspector Montalbano, has published a text entitled Conversations about Tiresia. It is a small booklet that faithfully reproduces the text of the homonymous show staged last June 2018 and played by Camilleri himself.

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The central theme of the text, as the title says, is the figure of the soothsayer Tiresias. Legendary figure, of which little is known. Certainly, of him, it is known that he is originally from Thebes, has a daughter named Manto, she guesses too, but above all that he is blind, or as we would say today: blind. The play is a small one excursus from irony, mockery and a few digs at today's world, how this figure has been described, mocked and at the same time loved and respected over the centuries. notoriously, Greek antiquity produced a series of sources on Tiresias. The most interesting thing to note is that in a pre-Christian antiquity, who had a very difficult relationship with the disabled, a physically disabled figure such as Tiresias has instead remained alive in the writing of these authors. Certainly, the figure of the Theban soothsayer, it is especially interesting for a cultural reflection on disability.

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The Pseudo Apollodorus he tried to explain where Tiresias' blindness originated. So he reported three narratives, in its Library; the second and third narratives are particularly interesting[2], also told theatrically in Camilleri's text. In the second narrative, the one according to Apollodorus, Tiresia is the son of Evereo and the Nymph Cariclo: the blindness comes from the punishment of Athena that Tiresias saw naked taking a bath; then Cariclo intervened and asked for mercy for his son. Athena did not remove the blindness of the wretch see, but joined in the ability to be a soothsayer. The third narrative Apollodorus takes it up from the Greek poet Hesiod, and it is the most complex, because it inserts other elements. Tiresias meditated while walking on Mount Citerone: here he saw two snakes in the act of sexual union and then in disgust he decided to trample and kill the female. As soon as the lustful asp was crushed, magically Tiresias changed from man to woman. This image, it induces Camilleri to put in the mouth of Tiresias a theological consideration linked to snakes:

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“As a teenager, I loved taking long solitary walks on the Citerone and one day, suddenly, while I was sitting on a stone, I saw two large coiled snakes rushing towards me in the act of reproduction. I was lost in thought, for this I reacted as I never should have. Why with snakes, sul Citerone, one had to be careful. In order to possess Persephone, Zeus changed into a serpent and Cadmus also "asserted himself" for his escapades. So in those reptiles a god could hide "[3].

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We will come back to this detail shortly. We observe how Tiresias is truly wise: that is, he is able to go beyond the material aspect and grasp the divine nature of even such an animalistic act as sexual union. Anyway, proceeding with the narration, we know that later the Theban soothsayer became a man again, but his misfortune was not over. Indeed, in an indefinite period, Zeus and Hera quarreled and often found themselves divided by a controversy: if in the act of intercourse the man or the woman felt more pleasure. They could not come to any conclusions because in fact the two main positions confronted each other strongly: Zeus, in fact he claimed it was the woman, while Era was the man. To settle the dispute they decided to turn to Tiresias, considered the only one who could have solved it since he had tested both the male and female nature. Perhaps it would have been better if Tiresias had followed the old adage of not putting a finger between husband and wife[4]. But, for that time, he was not careful about this. Therefore, once summoned by the two quarrelsome gods to resolve the overrun problem, replied that sexual pleasure consists of ten parts: the man only tries one and the woman nine, therefore a woman feels a pleasure nine times greater than that of a man. Tiresias thought of answering thus doing Hera a favor, believing that the goddess had answered according to her own reasoning. The goddess, instead, she was furious that Tiresias had revealed that secret: and so it blinded him. Instead Zeus, contrary to his wife's reaction, he decided to repair the damage suffered, and empowered Tiresias to foresee the future and the gift of living for seven generations. And this, in the Greek perspective, it implied having a practically eternal life.

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Here then are the three elements highlighted in Tiresias' disability: blindness follows the punishment of knowing a deep secret of man. Tiresia, a bit like Prometheus, he is to blame for having ventured to guess and reason, get beyond the achievable: therefore of having entered the highest spheres of the intimacy of man and woman. Of having been able to dissolve the very secret of the total donation of man to woman and vice versa, therefore of their profound identity. At the same time, Tiresias entered the deep secret of bodily pleasure and the origin of life. He really couldn't stand this affront. Thus, he thinks he is displeasing Tiresias, blinding him: but doing so actually takes it away from the view of material things and leaves it forever to the view of information, higher notions and concepts. I dare say that Tiresias can be the slave in the Platonic cave who, freed from the snares of material visions, finally sees the light of Ideas., in the eternity of timeless truth. However, I do not want to enter into a platonic analysis.

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Returning instead to the disability of Tiresias is added, with the action of Zeus, the gift of foresight and eternal life. The anthropological masterpiece of Tiresias the Theban is definitively finished. The disability, so condemned, so stigmatized in the Greek world, and instead, in Tiresia, loaded with a set of extraordinary gifts donated by the gods[5]. So the lack of light on everyday things matters little.

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Tiresias knows the fact present in her most intimate secrets. The same applies to future events: knows what is deeper, what is most sought after by every Greek man, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer or historian. The scholar Paolo Scarpi writes about this:

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«[…] Tiresias' blindness is actually the condition for him to fulfill his role as a soothsayer […] The three reasons presented in the Library, […], in reality they appear connected by a common denominator represented by the optical code on which the story is built. […] sight enters directly into question, configuring itself as a transgression of a code of behavior enunciated by Callimaco […] (the laws of Cronus thus establish who sees an immortal against his will, will pay a great price for this view)»[6]

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In confirmation of this it seems interesting to note what the Odyssey of the Theban diviner. Homer offers an important task to Tiresias, in fact in the tenth canto we read:

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"To ask the soul of the Theban Tiresias,

the blind soothsayer, whose precordi are firm:

to him only Persephone gave even when he was dead,

the faculty to be wise; the others are wandering shadows "[7]

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Ulisse, nell’Ade, he is forced to look for Tiresias, to find out about the way back to Ithaca. In the verses of the Homeric poem, we read between the lines that only Tiresias are granted the extraordinary gifts that make him so wise. I add a couple more elements: in Tebaide, the poet Stazio describes that Tiresias, deaf-mute and blind at the same time, retains its extraordinary powers. who, physical disability, it is even more pronounced, nevertheless wisdom and prophecy remain. And they will have a dramatic role in Sophocles.

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InOedipus Re, Tiresias is called prophesying also the famous incest between Oedipus and Jocasta and the killing of Laius: in this tragedy the prophecy of the blind is even an element of help in the discovery of a moral action condemned by time. The contribution of Tiresias becomes fundamental in the dissolution of the Oedipus drama.

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Returning and concluding the reading of Camilleri's text, I find a splendid poem dedicated to Tiresias by the poet Thomas Sterne Elliott

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«I Tiresias, although blind, button between two screws,

old man with withered female breasts, I can see

at the purple hour, the hour of the evening that comes

on the way back, and bring the sailor home from the sea,

I can see the typist at home at tea time, clears breakfast,

turns on the stove and takes out canned food.

Outside the window dangerously hung out to dry

Its combinations touched by the last rays of the sun,

on the sofa (his bed at night) they are crowded

socks, slippers, shirts and corsets.

I Tiresias, old man with shriveled boobs,

you perceive the scene, and predicted the rest -

I too expected the expected guest.

He, the pustular young man, arrives,

employee of a small rental agency, with a single glance

baldanzoso,

one of the people to whom the security is

like a top hat to an enriched peasant.

The time is now right, as he conjectures,

lunch is over, she is bored and tired,

try to engage her in caresses

which are not rejected, even if unwanted.

Excited and determined, he attacks all of a sudden;

exploring hands meet no defense;

his vanity requires no answer

and takes indifference as a welcome.

(And I Tiresias have pre-offered everything

What was done on this same sofa or bed;

I who sat under the walls of Thebes

and I walked among the humblest dead).

[…]

Then I came to Carthage

Burning burning Burning burning

O Lord You take me

O Lord You seize

Burning[8]

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The analysis of Tiresias' disability it therefore shows how disability has a contradictory value in the pre-Christian world: in which a relationship of damnation is highlighted, stigma, removal e, other, almost instead a state of elevation to higher knowledge. The theme of disability, for the Greeks it therefore called for a sapiential knowledge of the present, a prophetic knowledge of the future, a call to eternal life (certainly not of the same characteristics as the Christian Kingdom of God). Obviously, the aspect totally absent in Tiresias' disability, as indeed to all Greek reflection before the coming of Christ, it is obviously the link between divine and human activity: that relationship between grace and nature that will only subsequently be probed by Catholic theology.

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In fact, Tiresias suffers from disability in his human nature as a punishment: it is not explained by the Greek myths in what way, after obtaining the disability, his person is brought, through disability, to a path of improvement and moral elevation with the help of the Gods. The disability, in Tiresia, in short, it is a special epistemological methodology but not one of sanctification. A special way of knowing but not of raising oneself to a relationship with the sacred. On the other hand, it is completely different in character, the sense of physical suffering, and therefore also a visual impairment, since the advent of Jesus Christ: all disabilities are part of the affliction and suffering love of Christ. They can therefore be grouped under the great category of suffering.

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AFFLICT BUT INTIMALLY UNITED IN THE SUFFERING LOVE OF JESUS

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One thing is certain. About Christianity, it is founded by Jesus and it is a religion of joy; indeed, Christianity, it started with a joyful imperative. «Kaire / Rejoice Maria!» [9] so the archangel Gabriel greeted the adolescent Mary. We certainly recognize with Joseph Ratzinger that "Christianity is therefore the faith of joy"[10]. And yet, within the path of a Catholic faith that is joyful, it does not escape some particularly delicate issues such as suffering, penance and pain. Let us think for a moment that in the journey of the Catholic Church there is a great period of penance and asceticism: Lent. This is because Lent is above all a time of conversion, but also a time of desert and reflection. In that period there is an invitation to linger, in our personal prayer or meditation, on those issues that are ordinarily difficult to assimilate and deal with, like sin, the death, the illness, pain. Suffering is a very sensitive issue. Above all it is delicate because it is experienced by men and women. Theme that we have all touched firsthand. These men are suffering. Therefore they are afflicted. In fact, one of the themes that the Old Testament also speaks to us about is suffering. Let's think, for example, of the story in the book of Job. Theright omo, today we will say a pious, a decent and very devoted person. The Lord, then, it allows the devil to be tried in moral suffering, we remember in fact that all his children were killed; therefore, material, we remember that he lost all his possessions; finally physics, we remember that he fell seriously ill with leprosy and was isolated from everyone, except from four friends.

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In Job, according to the exegetes, we find four typically human reactions. The first is acceptance (cf.. Gb 1,22). He peacefully accepts that all this comes from God. At the same time, he also demands from him a kind of return in the future. The second reaction, it is rebellion (cf.. Gb 3, 1). He will even wish to die. It is also a typical reaction of today's sick people: it is a desire for tranquility and peace. The third reaction is custody (cf.. Gb 40). Job entrusts himself to God recognizing his littleness, one's being created creature, with respect to God the uncreated creator. So he truly relies on the Creator because he recognizes that he was proud and pretentious towards him. Fourth reaction, the unearthly reward (Gb 42,7). Job is given back all that he had lost in a double way [11].

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Job is an afflicted one. God after a journey of conversion, of purification and growth is consoled by God. I was very impressed when I too hear the voice of an afflicted one. An afflicted one a few years ago: but that in his today, as today it has been abandoned by all. For this I would like now let you hear the voice of that kind of afflicted that, unlike Job, He did not make it.

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"I lived (evil) for thirty years, someone will say that it is too little. That someone is not able to determine what the limits of tolerance are, because they are subjective, not objective. I tried to be a good person, I've made a lot of mistakes, I have made many attempts, I tried to make sense and purpose using my resources, to make an art of discomfort. But the questions never end, and I'm tired of hearing it. And I'm sick of pormene too. I'm sick of making efforts without getting results, fed up with criticism, fed up with job interviews like unnecessary graphic designer, tired of wasting feelings and desires for the other gender (who obviously doesn't need me), tired of envying, sick of wondering what it's like to win, of having to justify my existence without having determined it, fed up with having to meet everyone's expectations without ever having met mine, tired of putting a good face on bad luck, to feign interest, to delude myself, to be made fun of, of being pushed aside and being told that sensitivity is a great quality. […] Nothing can be expected from this reality. You can't expect a job, one cannot expect to be loved, recognition cannot be expected, you cannot expect to expect security, a stable environment cannot be expected. […] I entered this world as a free person, and as a free person I got out of it, because I didn't like it even a little. Enough with the hypocrisies. […] I know this seems crazy to you, but it is not. It's just disappointment. The urge has passed: not here and not now. I cannot impose my essence, but my absence does, and absolute nothingness is always better than a whole where you cannot be happy doing your destiny. […] Forgive me, mum and dad, if you can, but now I'm home again. I'm fine"[12].

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It is terrible to read such lines. It is almost impossible to empathize with the pain of a young person who wants to take his own life. It is absolutely impossible to understand the pain of those parents who have lost a child in this way. And yet, this young man was an afflicted one. An afflicted one left alone by all: abandoned to the mentality and fashion of the world, who believes and inculcates everyone that suicide is the only way to live their freedom. This is the freedom that today's world wants to convince us Catholics too that it is the one to live: a freedom that is not true freedom. That freedom that would be expressed in assisted suicide and euthanasia techniques, as happened for the case, rose to the fore of the news, by Dj Fabio. Dj Fabio was also a sufferer, one that we will biblically call afflicted[13]. The world, instead of giving him true freedom, he has abandoned him for good. The rule of law even offers him reason and jurisprudence to found the belief that one can only get out of suffering by committing suicide. As if suicide were the maximum expression of a "freedom"[14]. That freedom that eliminates suffering and affliction. Because a suffering and afflicted life has no value, then it is eliminated. It is taken and thrown away. And everything is disguised with the magic word: li-ber-Ta. Three syllables with which today we ride the wave and allow everything.

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"We live in an era in which we are entitled to live only if they are perfect. Any insufficiency, any weakness, every fragility seems banished "[15]

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There is only one answer to this terrible conviction of today's culture. The real answer that each of us can give is this: the joy of Jesus Christ. It responds to a logic of death, of throwaway culture, of necroculture simply by showing the joy and love that Jesus had for the afflicted. Because Jesus Christ himself often met with suffering. That is, Jesus met suffering and afflicted people: who in the body and who in the spirit. And he put himself at the service of them and their relatives and friends. For this he was able to relegate a special place in the Beatitudes to the suffering: "Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted"[16].

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If we take a look at the Gospel of the resurrection of Lazarus, let's see immediately how Jesus relates to the death of his dear friend Lazarus. Jesus himself cries. He is afflicted, and lives this moment together with other afflicted ones. Let's try to follow the Gospel text closely:

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«Jesus loved him very much (agapan = loved with mercy) to Marta, to his sister [Mary] and to Lazarus. Marta then, as he knew that Jesus was coming, went to meet him; Maria, on the other hand, was sitting in the house. Martha said to Jesus: "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died! But even now I know that whatever you will ask of God, God will give you ". Jesus said: "Your brother will rise again". Marta answered him: "I know he will rise again on the last day". Jesus said: «I am the resurrection and the life; who believes in me, even if it dies, will live; whoever lives and believes in me, will not die forever. You believe this?». He answered: "Yup, O Lord, I believe you are the Christ, the Son of God who must come into the world " (= pepisteuka, the Greek verb expresses a strong leap of faith) Then Jesus saw her weeping and the Jews who had come with her also weep, he was deeply moved (embryonic masts = to get angry), he was upset and said: "Where have you placed it?”. They told him: "Lord, come and see!”. Jesus burst into tears. Then the Jews said: “See how she loved him!”. After placing the stone in which Lazarus was placed, Jesus then raised his eyes and said: "Father, thank you that you listened to me. I knew you always listen to me, but I said it for the people around me, so that they believe that you sent me ". And, said this, he shouted loudly: "Lazarus, come outside!”. The dead man came out, with his feet and hands wrapped in bandages, and the face covered with a shroud. Jesus said to them,: "Untie it and let it go" "[17].

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Let's try to read the text analytically. In verse 5 we see first of all that Jesus performs the action ofagapan that is, he loved Marta deeply, Maria and Lazzaro. Agapao is the Greek verb from which it comes agape, that we precisely translate with Mercy. So he loved them with mercy. Also to the verses 20 – 27 Jesus is rebuked by Martha, later also by Maria, of not having been present at the time of Lazarus' death. He gets from them an act of faith in eternal life that happens through His Presence: the presence of Jesus, Son of God in the world. subsequently (cf.. V.33) when he later learns of Lazarus's death, Jesus is moved: he has an angry movement of passion (so does the Greek verb embryonic masts), of aversion towards death which is one of the effects caused by original sin in turn generated by the devil. Jesus himself, therefore, expresses aversion and hostility towards death. Commenting on the verses 41 – 42, the exegete Brown writes:

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"Through the exercise of the power of Jesus, which is the power of the Father, they will know the Father and thus will receive life themselves. Jesus will get nothing for himself, he only wants his listeners to know the Father who sent him. […] The crucial thing is that Jesus gave physical life as a sign of his power to give eternal life on this earth and as a promise that on the last day he will raise the dead "[18].

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Marta, Maria and Lazzaro are afflicted. Jesus makes him discover, right in affliction, a true and real relationship with God. Suffering then becomes one of the possible "places" to truly encounter the Lord's love and receive consolation from it. As God did with Job and as now Jesus does with Lazarus. Indeed, the affliction, it can generate a sense of isolation: as we have seen so far, the suffering, if on the one hand it is an experience, on the other hand it is at the same time a solitary experience, permitted by God to the individual and only to the individual. In an indirect way it also affects relatives, the friends and neighbors of the afflicted one, but it serves first of all to the single person. These afflicted ones are not that far in time and space from our lives.

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We too can be merciful and show God's love to the afflicted. We can express and communicate the joy and vitality of Jesus through these suffering brothers of ours? Through the exercise of material and corporal works of mercy, it is possible to express the biblical sense of consolation. Here is the connection between consolation and a sense of brotherhood: knowing how to enter into someone's drama and support it. To be truly with - brothers through the Mercy / Agape of God for the other. To live by helping the afflicted is to support them. In being a support then there are three drifts that must absolutely be avoided:

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a) pitying the afflicted one. In other words, there is a risk of creating a victimization. Through this dynamic, the person gets stuck in his own pain and closes himself in a narcissism that prevents him from getting better [19].

b) The narcotic effect. That is, trying to get rid of pain by putting the conscience on it. The person is therefore pushed by society to live as if pain does not exist. This leads to superficiality, which is dangerous because it postpones the problem of pain and aggravates it[20]. In fact, escaping from a problem means aggravating it.

c) Invite the afflicted to see who is worse off than him: there is nothing worse than making existence like a Serie A ranking and saying who is better and who is worse off. It makes no sense to console someone by saying "since there are those who are worse off than you, you have to be fine " [21].

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Let's see', then, the work of mercy to console the afflicted in what it really consists of. The words of the presbyter Fabio Rosini who writes will help us:

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Physical pain can be harsh, but if there is a reason, it is supported, the heart is serene; if however, the pain is without explanation then becomes unbearable. Affliction needs a word to fill it, that address you, an indication that guides understanding " [22]

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The same word consolation (in Hebrew nacham), biblically it is rendered with the verbs to rest, stop, find tranquility or even give refuge[23]. This is what we just saw Jesus doing with Lazarus' afflicted relatives. Pacifying a person means giving him that word of fullness, understanding, sense that pain seems to have stolen from him.

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"Whoever performs the act of consular is capable of putting himself next to the sufferer by showing him what he cannot see and allowing him to open his heart, the look, the spirit to another perspective, an integral depth that gives completeness "[24].

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In a certain sense, all Christians are called to console, remember that it is they who are called to give this completeness. So this is the call to be those who remember that God is above all hope in suffering. Remind the world and today's culture that hoping is a typically human act, but at the same time elevating: because it allows even the worst of the afflicted to rise above their pain. As Fabio Rosini always writes, consular, giving hope basically means, make an act of mercy that "makes eternity present, that reveals the face of God in pain "[25]. This will also allow us to resume first of all hope. And hoping is a typically Christian act. More, to hope is the typically Catholic act! Because the believer is the one who has placed all trust in Jesus. And just like Martha and Maria, he expresses his hope aloud in pain. Always keep this in mind, while you prepare sandwiches for the poor, while you prepare the spinal stretcher, while you rearrange the civil protection facilities. Hoping means first of all kindling the expectation of a God who is the immensely good absolute good.

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Each of us can be a bearer of hope, carriers of joy even to the afflicted of the poorest neighborhoods, to the afflicted one due to grief or depression, or precisely of a disability. Here then is that by relating these reflections to disability, we will say that even the person with disabilities, despite his afflictions and physical pains, he is called to a path of joy and sanctification. There is always a higher plane to which God the Father directs, how he directed the sufferings of Jesus of the Passion, to the joy of the Resurrection. We too will be transported to the joy of consolation. Because when we will console an afflicted one, this will make us truly discover the joy of our life. Our whole life will be knowing how to rediscover the presence of a Trinitarian God, who is with us even in pain. It is by loving who is afflicted, making him rediscover this joy of living, together with the poet Giacomo Leopardi we can say "I have never felt so much living as loving" [26].

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Rome, 4 November 2020

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NOTE

[1] The reader can consult for further information: G. In. Stella, Diverse - The long battle of the disabled to change history, Solferino, 2019, Milan.

[2] Pseudo-Apollodoro, Library, III, 6, 7.

[3] In. Camilleri, Conversations about Tiresia, Sellerio, Palermo, 2019.

[4] In. Camilleri, op.cit.

[5] Along this same line M stands. Schianchi, History of disability - From the punishment of the gods to the welfare crisis, Carocci, Rome, 2012, 40.

[6] Apollodoro, Greek myths, by P. Shoes, translate. at M.G. Ciani, Monadori, Milan, 1996, 55.

[7] Odyssey X, 492 and following, Translation by G. Aurelio Privitera

[8] T.S. Elliott, Wasteland mentioned in A. Cammileri, Conversations about Tiresia, 41 – 42. Check page again.

[9] Luca 1, 26.

[10](J). Ratzinger, Elements of fundamental theology, Morcelliana, Brescia, 69.

[11] S. Pinto, The secrets of Wisdom, Introduction to the wisdom and poetic books , St. Paul, Cinisello Balsamo, 2013, 21 – 23.

[12] Letter from M., a suicide in his thirties, taken from http://messaggeroveneto.gelocal.it/udine/cronaca/2017/02/07/news/non-posso-passare-il-tempo-a-cercare-di-sopravvivere-1.14839837 last access 10/01/20 hours 18.07.

[13] See. http://www.huffingtonpost.it/2017/02/28/fidanzata-dj-fabo-vorrei-notte-non-finisse_n_15055120.html Last Access 23 March 2017 hours 16.43).

[14] https://www.repubblica.it/cronaca/2019/09/25/news/consulta_cappato_dj_fabo_sentenza-236870232/ Last Access 10/01/10 hours 18.16.

[15]In. D’AVENIA, The art of being fragile, 2016, 147.

[16] Mt 5,4

[17] Gospel according to John, chapter 11.

[18] R. And. Brown, John, 2014, pp 567 – 568

[19] Fabio ROSINI, Only love creates, 2016, p. 121.

[20] place.

[21] Fabio ROSINI, on,CIT, p. 122.

[22] Fabio ROSINI, p. 120.

[23] Fabio ROSINI, p. 127.

[24] Fabio ROSINI p. 129.

[25] Fabio ROSINI, p. 129.

[26] (Zibaldone 1819 – 1820.)

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