The philosophy of Martin Heidegger and Nazism

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PHILOSOPHY AND MARTIN HEIDEGGER Nazism

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In 1933, the year that Hitler came to power, Martin Heidegger became rector of Freiburg University and assumed the role of official philosopher and most authoritative of the National Socialist Party, whose passport he retained without any repentance to 1945, even as early as 1934 he resigned, But not for a withdrawal from the Nazi doctrine, but because he said, Nazism, in fact he had failed to its essence, and for having given up his radicalism "spiritual".

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Author
John Cavalcoli, o.p.

I prepare to deal with this sensitive issue philosophy and theology for our page Theologically, They have often echoed in my mind the words of the late Cardinal Giacomo Biffi, which for years he was my bishop when I lived in Bologna and doing my ministry at the Theological Dominican:

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"We we encounter often in the prophets of nothing, who have nothing to say to man as man, but they say it with great commitment and varied means, aggressive announcers of the existential vacuum, that they try to camouflage with the glitter of a purely formal rationality, bearers of a culture of death, attempting to establish themselves as masters of life ' [Exploring design, LDC 1994, p. 308].

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Some words accompanied by the admonition contained in the Book of Wisdom:

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The wicked invoke upon himself death with words and deeds; deeming friend, They consume for it and with it a covenant, because they are worthy to belong [1,16].

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In the large international debate on Martin Heidegger [1889–1976] being from seventy to this part has not been investigated so far and reflected enough on the binding of this philosopher with Nazism. Bond to which Heidegger, as rector of the University of Freiburg, It gave a lot of importance on the theoretical level, talking about a spiritual "national socialism" and praising Adolf Hitler as "the guiding thought".

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This approach helps us to understand on the one hand what were the intellectual roots and basic impulses of Nazism, other, makes us better understand the practical consequences of the metaphysics of Heidegger. In particular, considering what are the practical consequences of Heidegger's metaphysics, we understand why Heidegger had admiration for the Nazi doctrine.

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We must then briefly recall the existential ontology principles Heidegger, comparing them with the doctrine and the Nazi program, Hitler summed up in his famous work Mein Kampf, which, moreover,, beyond the historical-political-national program of socialist-statist orientation, He has experienced a profound spiritual and moral backgrounds, rooted in traditional self-consciousness show that the "Christian nobility of the German nation" had matured for centuries, especially since the formidable thrust given to it by Luther, who had the brilliant idea but diabolical, harbinger of immense popularity among the Germans, which is still going, to conceive a German way of being Christian - so far nothing bad -, but from this he developed the poison of the conflict with the Apostolic Roman, the obstinate belief to have found or found the true gospel - basically a remake of the heresy of Marcion - proposing and imposing itself as a prophet, Doctor and Christian reformer of the German people, But he was able to conquer only partially, why more, until today, It remained a Catholic part of the population that has kept, often between suffering and humiliation, fidelity to Rome and to the previous Catholic tradition, often wrongly accused by Protestants of little patriotic spirit, when in fact it is the German Catholics to keep up the centuries the Christian honor of this great and noble nation.

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Humiliation suffered like the German Catholics on the occasion of Hitler's rise to power. Indeed, while Catholics, for their loyalty to Rome, They were accused of anti-patriotism, Protestants educated by Hegel, on the basis of Luther, urged to regard the state as the supreme manifestation of God's will, They had no trouble paying the Führer absolute obedience, which, as we know, he came, for many of them, to follow him into a terrible war of aggression in Europe, accompanied by the extermination of the Jewish religion Germans. To this it can be said with certainty that the Hegelian doctrine of the state is one of the theoretical foundations of Nazism.

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Nihilism HOW THE SOUL OF Nazism

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The nihilist tendency of ancient Manichaean-Zoroastrian origin, and it is linked to the existence cyclic conception, present in the pagan world, both West and East, for example in India, with the ancient symbol of the swastika. The return to the starting point cancels all the intermediate motion, although it is true that in antiquity, for example in Plato and in Pseudo-Dionysius, the circle is the symbol of spiritual perfection, reflecting on itself.

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You can not be excluded however, that the coincidence of the end point with the starting point can be understood as the correspondence of the efficient cause with the final cause, which would be a sign of wisdom. But unfortunately, it made the swastika was taken by the Nazis to signify the eternal opposition of life and death, which it is also a principle of esoteric Masonry [no life without death, no death without life].

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Even the ancient Gnostic and dualistic conceptions of reality They have a nihilistic aspect, as they consider the matter as a non-being and how bad. From this point of view, Pythagoras and Plato are not without a tinge nihilistic.

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Nihilism as a negation of God, enters into Christianity Marcion, with his contempt for the God of the Old Testament and in the history of Christianity occasionally reappears, such as with the thirteenth century Cathars. Pessimism Lutheran towards reason and free will is certainly a nihilistic character.

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German Idealism, which it reduces to be thinking and the object to the subject, certainly it has a nihilistic aspect, in that it denies the external reality or dissolves in the idea, to conclude at the end with atheism, forgetting the fact that it is starting from the things that we know that God exists. But if being is reduced to the ideas of the subject, it is clear that the subject does not come to God, but rather it ends in their own world, God makes of himself and left with absolutely nothing in his hand. It is the sad story of Nietzsche.

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The interesting thing is that the history of nihilism It goes hand in hand with hatred for Jews, because of being biblical enhancement created and uncreated. Indeed one notices that each nichilista is always an anti-Semite, and it is logical, because no people, like that of the ancient Israelites, It has a sense of reality, whether the material created, whether that divine spiritual.

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To define nihilism nietzschiano-nazista collochiamolo in the bigger picture and appropriate nihilism in general. nihilism, indeed, It has many forms. It, in general, is the tendency to denied being, be it material or spiritual, mundane or divine, be your own or others'.

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nihilism, like every movement of the spirit Practical, It is the practical application of a theory. Let us then first the theoretical basis or gnosiological. It relies on God and human action. The theoretical nihilism is the belief that being there; being is nothing, is worth nothing. Everything is nothing. It is well expressed by the bitter lamentation and dejected of Ecclesiastes: "All is vanity". This is also the Buddhist nihilism. However, nel Qohelet, the vanity of which he speaks is the vanity of this world. It is always affirmed the existence of God, What it gives meaning to the world he created.

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The Nazi nihilism appears as a power to be, be expanding, be aggressive, and yet it supposes that framework epistemological. However for it that there is no point. There is originally just nothing. Nothingness is the bottom of all things. Everything is appearance. Everything is subjective, there is nothing objective. Metaphysics is illusion. Nothing is intelligible. Of everything you can be doubted. To affirm and deny the same thing. It is also found in the Greek Sophists and the Skeptics.

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Diversa form of nihilism is that Hegelian, for which being is contradicted or canceled by nothing. Being coincides with the non-being. The being can not be without non-being. Being is, and at the same time it is not. everything becomes, everything passes and everything returns.

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Another form is nihilism Leopardi: It is located itself from nothing, all things come from nothing and return to nothing. The more comes from less and less to the back. Everything is absurd, at random, without meaning or reason. There is nothing for which it is worth living. This is a pessimistic nihilism; Instead the Nazis is optimistic. It is a hymn to life, but it ends with the tragic death, It is a "being-towards-death".

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Nihilism theological. For the Nazi God is man's expansion as will to power. God is not in the Nazi as a You who is the ego, but as an original force, intima, profound and fundamental ego. The Nazis did not simply deny the existence of the Christian God creator, but actively suppresses, kills him, cancels, as taught by Nietzsche.

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Note the difference nihilism Hegelian. For him, God is the identity of being and non-being. He is therefore nothing and be at once. The world is not something, but it's nothing. God is everything and nothing. So God does not create, that does not take the world out of nothing. But the world belongs to the essence of God, which it is to be and not be at a time, true and false, good and bad. God negates itself as well as the not-be denies being. God can not exist without the world. As the being is identified with non-being, so God is identified with the world.

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The practical nihilism is a form of contempt or hatred of reality, who appears hateful and bad. Hence the desire or attempt to cancel it as an enemy, to replace it with his own will, with their own ideas or a fictional world invented by us.

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L '' death instinct ', of which Freud speaks, l ' "being-towards-death" [his death] by Heidegger, the rise at the expense of others, the argumentative or quarrelsome, the spirit of contradiction [1], violence, the spirit of oppression - like the "will to power" [Will to power] Nietzsche - the desire to dominate, the murderous desire, Promethean spirit, the will of God undo, are forms of nihilism. The Nietzschean nihilism and Nazi so has the character of an aggressive nihilism, for which being is evil and must be destroyed. It is the hatred or contempt for reality, to be so for the true and the good. It's destructive will, Will death, to cancel, to destroy, to kill. This is the most severe form, that borders on insanity, as it has happened to Nietzsche, according to its well-known formulas: "The truth is a lie"; "We must trasvalutare all values".

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It is clear that no one seriously believes that being a nihilist does not exist or is it a dream or is contradictory, because it is such an absurdity, which it is not even thinkable. There is but the Heraclitean-Hegelian reduction being to become. And it is at the bottom of Heidegger's idea of ​​being, except that it tends to nihilism with his belief that being "appear" out of nowhere.

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But even the idea of ​​an absolute becoming You can be expressed in words, but you can not really think. The right idea of ​​becoming is only that of Aristotle, as a passage from potency to act. But here we are always being on the floor and there is no contradiction.

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THE BIRTH AND THE END OF THE TRAGEDY

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The Nazi enterprise was designed and built under the sign of a tragic conception of life and in particular hero, fighting for a hopeless cause, knowing in advance that will be defeated and yet it throws in the war. It is inspired by the Nietzschean conception of life and the superman, whose principles are already present in the work youth The Birth of Tragedy, scholarly work of philologist and expert on Greek literature, where even then it appears Nietzschean theory of the spring of the Apollonian serenity, which represents the rationality, from an original fund of darkness, chaotic and unbridled, the Dionysian, that is the self-understanding of the ego.

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In the further production nietzschiana, with Behold the man, It appears the myth of Fate, fate [skill], that will have great importance in Heidegger and Nazism. At the same time processes the famous Nietzsche's superman theory and the will to power, from which man's perspective on the one hand is intended to death, while the other wants to endlessly their own power and self-affirmation, whereby, on one hand likes Fate [love Fati], the other he feels himself as Doom instead of God, he suppresses [death of God] to assert himself. Zarathustra in Thus Spake Zarathustra is the superman model, that rises to the heights of truth and thence compassionately among men to teach them to rise to where he came down, waves become aware of their infinite power, that at the same time is running toward death, in an eternal cycle of life-death and death-life.

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My thesis is that the great tragedy of the modern age begins Luther and ends with Hitler. But today, the virus that can even throw in this tragedy - the "gettatezza” [thrownness or "alluvial", as he calls Heidegger] - it is still alive, and is the theology of Rahner, which, for its explicit declaration, in the last years of his life, Heidegger said that was "his only teacher".

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In 1933, the year that Hitler came to power, Heidegger became rector of Freiburg University and assumed the role of official philosopher and most authoritative of the National Socialist Party, whose passport he retained without any repentance to 1945, even as early as 1934 he resigned, But not for a withdrawal from the Nazi doctrine, but because he said, Nazism, in fact he had failed to its essence, and for having given up his radicalism "spiritual".

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The concept that Heidegger He had become the ideal Nazi was taken from Nietzsche, which, although it did arise the spirit from the body, However it presaged and advocated a progeny of lords and masters emerging on the mass of the weak and not lemmings biobased, how it will be later in the racist Nazi, but for the strength of will, for which, as already said Hegel, "The will wills itself».

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Another ingredient of the ideal Nazi It was the idea of ​​humanizing mission, liberating and salvific the German people, as God's chosen people among all peoples to teach the world the true concept of God and the divine freedom.

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Hence the belief descended that it was up to Germany, by divine right, dominion over all peoples: Germany üabout Everything, through the war of conquest, on the biblical model of how Israel, divinely, He conquered the promised land driving out from it or taking prisoner the people that was there.

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Hence the Nazi anti-Semitism: considering themselves Germanic people divinely elected, He could not tolerate next to him another chosen people, such as that of the Israelites. The idea was a materialization racist idea of ​​liberating mission-dominatrix, of spiritual. In this sense Heidegger refused to accept such popularization, for which his eyes Nazism leaked so his spiritual elevation.

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LUTHER AND THE MISSION OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

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Basically the idea was already launched at the time by Luther with his pamphlet To the Christian Nobility of the German nation of the Christian Estate [To the Christian Nobility of the German nation on the amendment of the Christian societies]. With Luther, the German people was discovered, against Roma falsifying Pharisee of the Gospel and against the Jews the terrible God of the Old Testament, the true preacher of the Gospel of God's mercy for all, without work and without merit, that the German soldiery Lutheran lay the people of Rome with the sack 1527.

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With this bellicose exaltation and irrational Luther of the German people took revenge, before, against that pagan imperial Rome, which in ancient times had tried to subdue him; and then, against the Rome of the Popes, who had exploited and humiliated.

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Luther, with his inner God, irrational and fatal, It is well placed, with a violent polemic against papal Rome, in the wake of a previous spiritual tradition appeared in the fourteenth century with Meister Eckhart, which, without falling in the excesses of Luther's anti-Roman, but still cracking the full doctrinal communion with Rome [2], inaugurating a specifically German way of making theology, based on category Gemüth, that is, as "feeling" pre-rational and mystical [3]. The term Gemüth is very difficult to translate, because it represents a complex of psychic factors per se distinguished from each other, but that all together are expressed in Gemüth. It could be likened to the Biblical term "heart". It involves refinement of inner eye, taste and discernment, depth of intuition, moral wisdom, purity of conscience, strength of conviction. But Luther, breaking with Rome, He has misled the German people from its true mission of the civilization and the Church, mission had already made light in previous centuries with his holy, such as San Bonifacio, San Brunone, Santa Ildegarda, Santa Gertrude, St. Albert the Great and the Rhineland mystics. Instead Luther exalted his people in a wrong way, injected in him the pride of the virus, which, over the following centuries, due to a shift away from truth and Christian faith, She led him to the madness of Nazism and the catastrophe of World War II.

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There remains so for centuries the belief Germans to be God's chosen people, that goes hand in hand with the conviction of owning their own powerful and revolutionary theology, expression of intuitive genius and German warrior, contrary and higher than the rational and moderate Latin or Greek, considered weak or decaying. And this conviction to be healthy people, strong and elected goes hand in hand through the centuries, up to Nazism and at the same Karl Rahner, with the conviction of the primacy of philosophy and German theology of all other philosophies and theologies of humanity.

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So in the fifteenth century it appears the German Theology, self-incensing of Germany and its theology, by an unknown author, Theology of the dark and the depths of the ineffable mystic momentum, work which Luther oversaw the publication. That, with its tendency immanentist, certainly contributes to the constitution and to the fame of Luther's theology.

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The famous thesis Cusanian of coincidentia oppositorum in God it has been exploited by idealists, probably bad interpreting the thought of the good Cusano, to endorse their absurd contradiction of God, the yes and no.

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The German Lutherans noticed than they could use in their favor the cogito Cartesian since its first rising, although it was invented by a Catholic: see for example Leibniz. In fact, the Cartesian ego, beyond its apparent rationality, It goes well with the self Lutheran. Just ask the immediate inner object of self Cartesian God's Word, as did Luther, instead Cartesian innate idea, And that's it. It is true that Luther was essentially a realist of the biblical realism. But his was a interiorista realism, of type Augustine, wary of the experience of sense, so the transition was not difficult to idealism.

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He took this step the Kantian epistemology and since then, up to Nietzsche and Heidegger, the subject or I became master of being, in barba a Lutero, knew that while preserve the Catholic biblical realism, This same St. Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham, who was master of Luther. In fact, for Aquinas and Ockham, as the Bible teaches, being is not product or ego expansion, but it is created by God.

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In the seventeenth century now appears Jakob Böhme, twisted and paradoxical philosopher of ' Abyss, unfathomable abyss and cruelly merciful God, origin of heaven and hell, of good and evil. Böhme, brilliant visionary and daring, by overactive imagination, ignorant of scholastic philosophy, but so much the better, It will be considered for excellence from the Tedeschi philosopher teutons, and prepare the idealism of the nineteenth century rise, especially with Fichte, Hegel, Hölderlin e Schleiermacher, where Gemüth becomes the Gehfühl, sentiment of the Absolute. The Gemüth It is also present in Kant, He also speaks of the abyss or "abyss of reason" [the precipice of the reason] [4].

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Even the jew Spinoza, although jew, It is co-opted by idealists, especially by Hegel, as "the one from which we must begin to make philosophy". The fact that Spinoza was rightly expelled from the synagogue as wicked after being hit by Cherem [Hebrew boycott, excommunication] It was for the idealists a title in more than glory, confirming them in their anti-Semitism.

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Hegel and Schelling see on Giordano Bruno, Prince occult magical Renaissance, an inspiring and precursor of idealistic pantheism, with particular reference to the opposition of being with non-being, that, according to the Nolan, It would be a magical power source. Hegel draws inspiration from there for his dialectic and the "power of the negative". Bruno, though not German, It is adopted by idealists as a new element to the "German philosophy".

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The Gemüth reappears as the background of consciousness in Husserl, master at a time of Heidegger and Edith Stein. It is paradigmatic for the German culture and the history of European civilization and of the Church, the story of the relationship between these three great figures of German philosophy. Edmund Husserl e la Edith Stein, Jews, Martin Heidegger, anti-Semitic.

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Husserl, early in his philosophical research, provoker was of great expectations in many spirits who long to know the truth, disappointed and dissatisfied relativist historicism, from petty positivism and flat Psychologism era. She also felt the need to return to epistemological realism, spoiled Hegelian idealism. So it was that Husserl launched the popular program: «let's get back to the things themselves!».

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And to implement this program, for which it would be enough to go back to St. Thomas Aquinas, as a few years before Leo XIII she had invited him to do, Husserl conceived a very ambitious plan, which is to actually establish a new science, the "phenomenology", which finally, after the crisis of European Sciences, He would ensure definitely the way to humanity, the principles and contents of the "philosophy as a science".

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At first Husserl spoke of one wesenschau, intuition or experience of being as objective essence, It looks like 'phenomenon', matter of fact, immediate manifestation or revelation and some of the universal truth, spiritual and logical consciousness.

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So far Heidegger and Husserl followed Stein. But later, both the first and the second began to take the distances. Heidegger, sensitive on one side to the issue of the concrete existing subject and the other being the thematic cha appears in Presocratic, He started his existential ontology, while Stein, after Husserl, failing to promises, Descartes wanted to re-evaluate and then embraced the idealism, He discovered the Thomistic realism and welcomed him, much to write an opera metaphysics "Finite Being and eternal being ' [be his finite and eternal] with which brought to light the fact that man, starting from the knowledge of things, in its finitude he is in front of the eternal Being, that is, God, so it was to refute subjectivism self both Husserl and Heidegger, closed both to the objective reality of being, and then ego encounter with God: Husserl, the fact that for him to be, devoid of its independence from the consciousness, He was reduced to be a simple "correlated" or "phenomenon" of consciousness; Heidegger, because it had to be reduced to finiteness and temporality of the fragile sinner and deadly.

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It is interesting the comparison between the outcome of the existential journey of Heidgger and that of Stein. This would have died a martyr at Auschwitz in 1942. Heidegger, Instead of the perfect actor who had always been, it was to the end and, because despite the bad impression he had made with Nazism, He keeps talking about him, He heard again, with incredible mystifying skills, gather around him the attention of both the atheists of unwary believers.

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Thus, after the ignominious end of his revered leader, He had the nerve to show up in the shameful 1946, with its famous Letter on humanism, of, the theoretician of '' being-towards-death ", like the lawyer of human dignity, "Shepherd of being ', refusing with sliced ​​chaste virgin outrage the winking and vulgar proposal of his worthy appears Sartre, atheistic existentialist, to join its "existentialism", because he, these Heidegger, was "being philosopher", concluding in the famous phrase: "Now only a god can save us", but that really is not the Christian God, but the "sacred" Hölderlin and then, again, the god of the Nazis.

 

MORE OF EVENTS GEMBEATH

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The Gemüth withi found in Heidegger and Nazism. It is certainly close to Gefühl of Scleiermacher and is subtended to Geist hegeliano. Kant, in the same Critique of Pure Reason, uses this term; but the Italian translator, not knowing how to make it, uses the term "spirit".

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The Gemüth It is also closely connected to 'Experience, as a spiritual or inner experience, in Hegel, Heidegger e Rahner: one with an emotional connotation moral act; while this is an act purely gnoseologic. The recurring motif of the Gemüth is the belief that the conceptual reason is not the primary function and profound epistemological man, but that this primary function lies in-prioricamente, more in depth, previously and pre-categorially in spirit or in the consciousness. For this dark ego likeness unintelligible and-priorico with self-consciousness Cartesian, Descartes, although Catholic, but really self-centered, find much success in the rise of egocentricity German idealist, until you get to the ego absolute ego Fichte and Nietzsche, He says on the ashes of the God who killed.

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The German theology, in its troubled history, constantly oscillating between two opposing tendencies, among which never finds peace: that gnostica Dio gnostòs, cognizable, rational, understandable, and conceptualization, which finds its highest expression in the God-concept Hegel, where the mystery is revealed; and the agnostic of God agnoston, Pagan misteriosofia, incognizable, irrational, unintelligible, Non-conceptualize, absolute and impenetrable mystery.

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This God is in Heidegger [the “sacred”] e in Rahner. It is not the true God, but rather "a" god, or "the" god, which suggests a polytheistic background. Is this the God of Hölderlin, Heidegger and Nazism, not devoid of references to the ancient Germanic mythology.

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German theologians have always It made a huge effort to understand and respond to the analog-participatory notion, which it is the guarantee to access an authentic notion of God, which is biblical, that avoids both Gnosticism polytheistic that agnosticism false mysticism. It is the Pauline notion of God, for which God is knowable, but incomprehensible; He can speak with truth and by analogy, but, to experience mystique summit, it is better to remain silent.

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The German feels the need of the mystical, of feel God with him, and is a great desire; He knows that God is in the depths of consciousness, more inward than my innermost, but it lacks policy, of humility and immerse sobriety in these abyssal depths and unsearchable, so you lose recklessly darkness, but nevertheless it claims to prophesy or prophesy, when in fact pronounced with oracular air gibberish, that naive listen avidly and are the subject of endless discussions and interpretations, never get away from a spider hole.

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It 'amazing, but also disgusting, to about, cunning with which Heidegger, after the defeat of the Nazis in which he had played a leading role, without giving any sign of repentance, He managed to rebuild the image, for many years vanished behind the exaltation of Nietzsche, deep inquiring being [5], so as not to disdain to speak of God "Savior of mankind" and of man "shepherd of being" and "being home", except to maintain a friendly contempt for Christian theology, he pompously called "ontotheology", vulgar and coarse, whereas yes, his God was "God's divine". And this would be the one who Rahner called "his one true teacher".

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HEIDEGGER E NIETZSCHE

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Nietzsche does not spare criticism of the German people, but always on the assumption it assumes that it is a "race of lords', in which he serves as a superhuman guidance of the new humanity without God, his vate and Führer philosophical, as Hitler will be the political Führer. The ambitions of Heidegger will not be different. Heidegger claimed to have discovered once and for all, after the first flashes of Anassimandro, Heraclitus and Parmenides, the sense or the truth, after that since then, before him, It was the "error history", Christianity included. And in a written note in 1933, refers to Hitler, that, he said, "She awakened a new reality that puts our thinking on the right track and gives impact force" [6].

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The first contact with metaphysics Heidegger him in his early essay of 1916 The categories and important teaching of Duns Scotus, where he meets the uniqueness of being Scotistic, and intuitionism and voluntarism of the great Franciscan theologian. These basic orientations will always remain in Heidegger, even when he, in contact with the metaphysical Parmenides and Heraclitus, lose the light of the Catholic faith, in which he was raised, so as to have had the thought, quickly abandoned, to become a Jesuit. He succeeds in fact in his mind the presumption, which from now on will not abandon mostly, typical of idealistic gnosticismo, to have achieved a degree of speculative intelligence greater than that offered by Biblical realism epistemological and Catholic theology.

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The metaphysical interest remains, but they seem to act at the same time the Lutheran influences, like that of’ "Anguish" [Angst], of alluvial [thrownness], of concern [worry], of guilt [fault], of concentration on the ego as an existential concreteness [To be there].

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The loss of faith however due to Heidegger's absolutization of metaphysics at the expense of theology. Metaphysics no longer leads to God, but it folds in on itself and about man, on To be there. It is the awareness that transcends the body be [the "ontological difference"]; but this "being" [Being] is not the ' to be very, It is not One Who Is [Is 3,14].

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For Heidegger, being is not the entity act, but the entity denial. Meeting the thought of Nietzsche, he, in his monumental work 900 pagine su Nietzsche, It developed during a decade [1930-1940] in full the rise of Nazism, It comes to conceive of being, its accompanying, as irresistible impulse, as absolute will to irrational act of war.

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The truth, on the basis of Nietzsche, adequacy entity is not already, but revelation or body appearance desired by subject. The truth is not the principle but the effect will. It is not true that exists, but what I want there. The truth coincides with freedom. The same concept reappears in Heidegger, and it is found in Rahner.

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Being, as in Duns Scotus, It is not analog or diversified, but unique. It is autocomprensione. It is not hierarchical, but horizontal. Transcendence is not a climb, but extend a, an exit by itself, a ' "ecstasy". The institution does not conceptualize, but it appears; and precomprende [preamplifierändnis] and is experienced. As in Duns Scotus, It is is not connected to the intellect, but the will. not the abstract, but the concrete. No universal, but the individual. The real is the good. From here it will be out Heidegger the idea of ​​truth as freedom, it will reappear on Rahner.

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Being, the sense or the truth per Heidegger, it is possible, to ask, trend, want, act, become, finitezza, presence, time, event, vita, freedom, history. The being is not nothing before, but it emerges from nothing. The being is the thought, the experience, the hidden. Even non-being, evil and false come in being. Becoming is better being. I am in the totality [To be there]. The human being is the agent in the world.

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To change, become, change is better than store. The man is a "historical". The being is "event" [event]. The will is always on the move, without fixed destination; establishes the law and decide on good and evil. No law in the situation; but the situation creates the law. Therein lies the freedom. "I want" instead of "thou shalt". Destroy and create. "Freedom for nothing in the freely willed necessity of an eternal return» [7]. Thought is rammemorante [souvenir] because thinking is to find the original, what was lost. The future return of the past. There is no progress, but a circularity.

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When everything becomes, nothing becomes. In ethics Heidegger, as in that of Nietzsche, there is no passage or progress from death to life, from least to most, but an eternal, esperante and hopeless conflict between life and death. As in the myth of Prometheus, the god's liver regrows and is increasingly consumed by Raven, or the Sisyphean task, he must always start after he reached the summit.

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amor Fati, according to the Nietzschean perspective. And Plato: "All that is great is in the storm" [8]. Emerging on the other is better than serving others. Violence is a sign of strength. The strong raises no weak, but dominates. Hate is the weapon of victory. The winner is always right. The loser is always wrong. The fact coincides with the right and with good.

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Nazi Germany He became convinced that the German people had from God [God with us] the sacred mission of establishing in Europe, under the guidance of the Führer, by the use of force and a lightning war of conquest [flash war], a new political-spiritual revolutionary order "millennial" [III Reich] "socialist" ["National Socialist"], involving the elimination of the Jewish people, as it was considered the maximum representative of the religion of the transcendent God slave, from which he had originated Christianity.

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Anti-Semitism, before being hatred for the Jewish people, It is hatred for their sacred text, ie the Old Testament, and then for God's transcendent creator and legislator, who punishes sin and requires repair by a sacrifice. As with the heresy of Marcion, the Germans with Luther rejected this God to replace it with the God of Christ. Except that the hostile conception of the Old Testament God turned against the Christian God falsandolo. In fact happened with Luther that, always in the line of Marcion, He claimed to enhance the mercy of the Christian God, remedial works are no longer needed, so that the moral law is relativized and made optional, Christian freedom became a pretext for the license and the life of grace began to be taken in a pantheistic sense, while human dignity exalted Christ began to be so inflated, which eventually ended in atheism. The first result was that of Hegel; the second was to Nietzsche.

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National Socialism THE ENTERPRISE

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The Nazis believed of having completed the Lutheran Reformation liberation of consciousness, that through Hegel reaches Nietzsche [9]. Heidegger was the greatest interpreter of this spiritual evolution, why was the philosopher who gave the National Socialist culture of its theoretical basis. The theological basis of Nazism was the Nazi belief that you have God with you. This belief develops Hegelian idealism pantheistic with the doctrine of the state deities. As for ethics, Nazism assumes the Nietzschean conception of the will to power. Based on Nietzsche, Heidegger to Nazism instead provides the conception of man and his destiny as self-understanding in athematic emotional situation and pre-historical understanding of itself as there, project and decision of its existence the creator and ruler of the world as being-towards-death. Hence the great army of the Nazi invasion of Europe project in order to occupy what Hitler called "living space" of the German people, which she belonged to him by right, so he was allowed to occupy it by force. This program was also Mein Kampf.

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To achieve this end Hitler Nietzsche applied the lesson gradually increase aggression without a clear deadline, but in an indefinite and insatiable, up to the limit of his strength, ie until the final collapse. And so indeed it happened. A tragic path toward death through the exercise of will power. Does not it came to conquer a domain in Europe, it was expected and encouraged or welcomed by the European. Yet the principle Nietzsche was just what the "race of lords', exponent of the superman, by fate he had the mission to subjugate the peoples decadent, still enmeshed in the bourgeois ideals of democracy and equality, short of '' inauthentic existence ", how to tell Heidegger, if not exactly into the trap of religion, morality and spirituality. So the firm's basic Hitler there was the doctrine of the Nietzschean will to power, Heidegger interpreted as a Nietzsche as a German man's essence - the "blond beast", as he called Nietzsche -, destined to rule over the world and jointly as the totality [Being] autoprogettantesi [design] and "thrown" [thrownness], the "cure" [worry] and guilt [fault], Emerging from nowhere [Not] and straining toward death.

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As Germany during Nazism was risen to the level of a major world power with its culture, its industry, his technique, its economy, its social organization and its armed forces, as well as with its colonies and the alliance of Italy and Japan, he had been able to attract to itself, and not lack sympathy for Hitler in various European environments, However the war effort of the conquest of Europe from France, England, Scandinavia, Russia, of the Balkans, to North Africa, associated, moreover, the elimination of the Jews, He could not not look at every healthy mind madness. For this, must say that, if Heidegger put this enterprise, this is explained - and it could not be otherwise - that with the same principles, fundamentally nihilistic and atheistic its metaphysics, especially of the central phase, that said support for the superomismo atheistic and nihilistic Nietzschean. I believe that the same Nazis, Heidegger and Hitler included, already they knew at the beginning that it would end badly.

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So why undertake it? Here we enter the heart of atheism and nihilistic say SIC et simpliciter of nihilism, because, as we have seen, Atheism is every nihilism. However, we must remember that the nihilist denies being so good is not absolutely, as, as we have seen, this is impossible. Beyond the flamboyant expressions, they do impress fools ["Everything is nothing", "Being is not being", "All is vanity", etc. ..], the so-called nihilist is actually nothing more than a vulgar and miserable little man desperately clinging to itself, is none other than the son of Adam sinner, well attached to the goods of this world. Certainly it is moved by a deadly and destructive spirit, that is the very essence of sin. In fact, the ideological climate dell'heideggerismo, the nietzschianismo and Nazism are those at the bottom of the tragedy, described by the same Nietzsche, whose words have remained famous'The tragedy begins», signifying that it was about to enter a tragedy. It would be the tragedy of the First and then the Second World War. But the tragedy of the virus is not completely eradicated. It remains dormant in the folds of history even today. And it would not take much to wake it up..

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TRAGEDY CAN START AGAIN

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The thought of Heidegger He was later hired by Rahner, as basic inspiration, during his theological training in the twenties of the twentieth century, during which he eagerly followed the lectures Heidegger. So Rahner, at the end of his life, after trying to make Thomas, in the years 1939-1941, an idealist, precisely he stated openly that Heidegger was the '' only his teacher '.

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And indeed, Rahner although he never specifically mention, it is not difficult to see Heidegger's influence in theology, in metaphysics, in epistemology, anthropology and ethics Rahner. In theology, the unintelligibility and ineffability of the divine mystery of theology Rahner, closely resembles the "nothing" Heidegger, from which it appears to be, nothing that is not simply non-being, but belongs horizon impenetrable and ineffable being hidden.

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In metaphysics, being as self Rahner, caught a priori as transcendental horizon of categorical understanding, It is certainly being Heidegger's self-understanding of man in the world, a-priori condition of the possibility of knowledge and experience of the world. In epistemology pre-understanding [Anticipation] athematic Rahner being corresponds to preamplifierändnis by Heidegger. The theming or conceptualization is the later and derivative, the empirical, original essence of self or identity transcendental experience with being, in which being coincides with thinking. In this way God no longer distinguished from the ego and from God, because the one and the other uniquely represent the horizon of, in which the be, albeit it finished as a human being, It coincides with becoming and with the will as a divine being.

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Rahner speaks of God but, as do Heidegger. But we might ask who God is and if it is the true God, Being subsisting, immutable and impassible, knowable "by analogy" [Sap 13,5] e «through what has been made» [RM 1,20], Creator of heaven and earth, distinct from the world, that the God of Jesus Christ? It would seem, because the attributes, the way and the manner in which God is known, are in stark contrast to the true God. Il Dio in Rahner, man summit, a-thematically, immediately and originally experienced, Mystery unintelligible, and unnamable, It is more like Nietzsche's superman to the true God of reason and faith.

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The ethical issue, in Rahner it appears as "spirit world". The man appears to be [To be there] being, so how historicity and self horizon as the transcendence. As spirit, man is freedom which does not act on the basis of a moral law dictated by a human nature fixed and defined; but the agent freely determine one's being destined for death. Human action, per Rahner, It is not governed by objective moral laws, universal and immutable. Since the action is in the concrete and the changeability and variety of circumstances, It is going to every single person, concrete subject, conscientiously decide what to do. The single person, therefore, according to Rahner, It has a duty, the right and responsibility to add, to his will, changing it, abstractness per se ineffective the moral law, that element of concreteness, which makes it operational, but for this same changing.

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It may so happen, according to Rahner, that a divine command, for instance, like that of mercy, failing in its abstractness a character of absoluteness, may be replaced, in certain cases, in the name of "freedom", from the practice of violence. In tal modo Rahner, with a style perfectly Nietzschean, with these disconcerting words, It is actually to justify violence: "The realization of freedom ... is already a restriction of freedom of another and of its essence, and this inevitably. No one can act freely, without thereby use 'violence' and exert a physical force on the other " [10].

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In fact Rahner even get to talk a "transcendental violence needs', which, 'Condition of possibility of creaturely freedom, it must also be recognized as a natural theologically, willed by God and intrinsically sinful " [11].

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As for the meaning Christian Death, Rahner, who does not believe the immortality of the soul, but he believes that with death the whole man dies, not even conceive of a life after death, but according to him eternal life is the death itself, as "personal self fulfillment" and as soon as the man reaches its "fulfillment" and "freedom reaches its finality ' [12]. It's the same idea of ​​Heidegger the human being as "being-towards-death". It's the same idea Nietzschean and Nazi death as a heroic act of free will in wanting what he wants the same Fate [skill] which is a command of the Führer.

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The tragedy of the virus therefore they are not dead, but only sleeping. De facto, as noted by Pope Francis, It has already started the third world war, which, moreover, does not destroy the bodies, as the other two, He destroys souls with mortal sin. Not triumphs physical death, but that inner, under the appearance of life. Rages inner tragedy under the guise of peace and normality.

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What we should meditate deeply is how it was possible that a great nation like the German people, so rich in human and spiritual qualities, so ancient Christian traditions and civilians, He was able to be seduced and carried away by a crazy madman like Hitler in a criminal enterprise absolutely crazy to want to subject the world to Germany, together with project sacrilegious to suppress the People Messianic and Priests, from which he was born the Savior of mankind.

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That what's this, such ideas, such interests, such impulses, what purposes, what mistakes, such illusions, such pretexts, such bad examples, such bad teachers, which will led him to so much? You should answer these questions, and we will see that viruses that have poisoned is not dead.

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Today it is rumored that Hell God does not exist and does not punish, actually Hell, and the rage of Satan we are experiencing them within the Church. Today that proclaims itself the "primacy of conscience", we are more than ever tormented by conscience. Today, in full rhetorical dialogistica, We are fiercely closed to those who do not think like us. Today we imagine ourselves to be caressed by a God "compassion" we invented, because we want to have permission to sin without being punished. Never souls today, which according to Rahner would be all in favor, They were actually so devoid of grace. From what we understand? From ignorance guilty. Never in fact, as today we have had access to so many means and so effective to instruct us in faith. Yet never before has it has come time to deny or to ignore the very foundations of existence, knowledge and life, and they have pullulato many heresies among theologians themselves, bishops and cardinals.

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Germans, who failed to conquer Europe and the world with weapons, they did not abandon the intention to take over the world. But now try to conquer subjecting it to Luther and his followers, until Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche ed Heidegger. Rahner is the Trojan horse by which Luther should subjugate the Church and the world to Germany. The obstacle to this is certainly the papacy. Against him now focus all the powers of evil. You notice that the Roman Pontiff today warns shots, sometimes falters, it seems to collapse, He feels the seduction, He is surrounded by children of the Devil. It should rally around him, urge the supervision and help in the tremendous struggle against Satan.

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Varazze, 6 May 2018

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NOTE

[1] Cit.da K.Löwith, op.ct., p.294.

[2] Cf A.Colombo, op.cit., p.65. A phrase probably exploited.

[3] Cf K.Löwith, As Hegel a Nietzsche. The revolutionary break of the century. Nineteenth, Einaudi publishing, 1993.

[4] spirituality Essays, Pauline Editions 1969, p.308.

[5] Ibid., p.309.

[6] The steps can be found in my Rahner Karl Rahner. The Second betrayed, Editions Faith&Culture, Verona 2009, pp.134-144.

[7] cf. the Heraclitean polemos pater panton.

[8] See his propositions condemned by Pope John XXII in 1329 (Denz.950-980).

[9] Cf G.Faggin, Meister Eckhart and pre-Protestant German mystic, Brothers Publishers Mouth, Milan 1946, pp 192-194; 208; 296; 298ss.

[10] Critique of Pure Reason, The third, Bari 1965, p.491.

[11] See his famous Letter on humanism of 1946.

[12] CIT. the A.Colombo, Bloodhounds. From the wrong side of history, Lindau Editions, Turin 2017, p.65.

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