LAW AND MORALS
CONTINUING THE THEOLOGY OF
The man-made laws, like all their works, may be wrong. The man-made laws are drafts of laws made by God; resemble the latter as a mechanical puppet can resemble a living man. Here is, the simplest survey puts end to this truth; above the laws passed by parliaments or imposed by dictators, there are other laws, made for men, but not by men, that, If you do not see it written in a code, are demonstrated by reason as is demonstrated by calculation of the astronomers the existence of a quantity of stars, that even the telescope is able to discover [Francesco Carnelutti]
John T. Baptists*
How often have occasion to observe many theologians, Philosophy, lawyers around the world and as we were reminded of the late Mario Palmaro, the relationship between law and morals is undoubtedly one of the fundamental and most problematic of human thought. The Servant of God, Father Tomas Tyn, theologian, philosopher and moralist would share valuable player this statement. How many times has it compared to this "high" issue - compared to what we would now only provide starting points for further investigation - and how many pearls of wisdom we have inherited.
Padre Tomas combatteva pair of suo the "anti-reductionism wisdom" that sought foolishly to deny "the rational and scientific, not in the sense of positivistica verbal, theology ". In this sense, the Dominican preacher reminds us that it is "the task of the theologian, in Also of particular moral, to provide demonstrations "while recommending a 'certain docility" and despite knowing how "morally can not be expected to demonstrate an absolute rigor, just because the material is contingent, viable since the man ". The "openness" as recommended by the Servant of God is therefore needed, since, note, issues of 'tall' which are always the ones that put the man in front of a choice that has to meet the Divine.
In this perspective, another great thinker Romano Guardini came to emphasize, with a certain suffering as his thoughts always revolved around the question "how God wants the finished" aware that "each value is in itself clear, but, as soon as it enters into the structure of human life, surrounds himself almost a hazy halo of injustices and distortions: here the problematic of a deep moral dimension, or rather of the will, act, exist in a moral sense ... "in view of the fact that" man is a bundle of contradictions ".
The thought of the above underscores Guardini "emerges very early in the history of the spirit, See the Aristotelian doctrine of ethics mesotes; so that, the true moral attitude presupposes the feeling of the complexity of life, an inner sense of proportion and a rise above ... ".
"High" and definitely hard to deal with then is the relationship between law and morality, but, as previously mentioned, we would like to offer the keys of study and reading sound and safe, including the thought and work of Father Tomas.
The theologian Father John Cavalcoli many years assiduously studied the works of Tyn, reminds us that: "To the extent that will worsen the current confusion and relativism in moral, you will hear more and more the need to refer to the teachings of his father Tyn, which, with its strong dogmatic thinking and speculative, reminds us that an effective fight against the moral error is given only by the refutation of dogmatic and speculative errors that underlie, proposing in this field, with valid arguments, sound doctrine ".
The deadly combination doctrinal error-moral deviations, in fact very worried father Tomas he considered, rightly, doctrinal purity good extraordinarily important. During our last meeting [see which] Ariel theologian Father Stefano Levi Gualdo recalled and illustrated in this regard as Catholic morality is based on common sense dogmatic, and to what extent 'the current moral crisis within the Church was born in the mountain by a deep crisis of doctrine and dogma that has grown and spread in the late sixties'.
Padre Tomas aveva Orroir by mistake and eras, but he had a great love for the wanderer who was trying to correggeras - putting this into practice with that work of spiritual charity so that the contraddistingueva - with love and respect befitting a saint but understands that, as stated by Cardinal Giacomo Biffi :
"... The historical wisdom of the Church has never reduced the condemnation of error to a pure abstraction and ineffective. The Christian people should be warned and defended by those who actually sow error, without thereby ceasing to seek the true good, and without judging the subjective responsibility of each of which is known only to God ".
As for "holy balance" in his father Tomas Tyn and pastors as Cardinal Biffi; As far as we are of "holy balance" in the age-old wisdom of the Church and the good Doctors. It is indeed a time, our, prey to the fashions of the moment. All is forgiven, in these dark times and stormy, at the whim of the individual, to instincts, transgressions and trends passed off most of the time in self-assertiveness, for sacred exercise of freedom.
Rileva Monsignor Antonio Livi:
"Particularly striking is the crisis that skepticism prevailing produced as part of the moral conscience. But the crisis of morality is not the root, but one of the branches of this evil that is skepticism. It 'still an alarming symptom ... "as, continued the master philosopher and theologian of common sense, "the collapse of moral certainty brings about the end of man and society, and then also the true religion, Catholic ».
In accordance with common sense, the young theologian Father Serafino Lanzetta shows that "the natural moral principles are themselves assumptions and unprovable evidence of a real cNOWLEDGE ... Without them there can be no moral life, is not given attention in the course of practical reason. To reason is immediatemind the obvious moral law in its primissimor principle which implies the need to always do good and avoid evil ". He reminds us, therefore,, essentially, the first principle of morality: Good performance, Malu know understanding.
A great master of the law of the Church, Cardinal Raymond Leonard Burke, in our times dark underlines that without justice there can be pastoral charity show. Instead what happens today? That is no longer the objective morality in our living rooms Radical chic, dominated by skepticism "fashionable" that does not admit a truth that goes beyond the many and often outlandish human opinions, there is no more objective morality among our renowned opinion leaders, that by then well-established mechanisms affect the whole society through film, television, the Internet, the radios, books, printing.
The moral objective was therefore replaced by a shadowy, uncertain, vacancy, smoky, saccharine, certainly pernicious moral situational, when not a real moral nihilism, guilty of forgetting that God revealed the obedience of faith - to believe - and even that of human behavior - the act, human activity - "If you love me, you will keep my commandments " [GV 14,15]; "You are my friends, if you do what I command you " [GV 15,14]. Sine qua non love of God is thus the observance of His law awareness, with the holy Apostle, that "the fulfilling of the Law is love" [RM 13,10] In fact, "the end of the law is Christ" [RM 10,4]. The commands of God, far from the constraints, have wings to rise up to Him. The great dignity of the moral conscience has been highlighted by the Magisterium of the Church.
The Second Vatican Council, to the number 16 the Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes shows that:
"Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not to give, but which he must obey, and whose voice ever calling him to love and to do good and avoid evil, when you need to speak to his heart: 'do this, shun that ".
The man actually has a law written by God in his heart; obey questto legg is the very dignity of man and according to it he will be judged [ROM 2,14-16]. Conscience is the most secret core and sanctuary of a man, There he is alone with God, whose voice echoes in 'their intimacy. Through consciousness makes itself known in a wonderful way that law, which finds its fulfillment in the love of God and neighbor ...
The law, reminds us of Bishop Andrew of Crete: "Was enlivened by grace and mail tol serve it in a harmonious and fruitful. Each element preserved its characteristics without change or confusion […] However, the law had constituted a heavy burden and became a tyranny, for God's work, light weight and source of freedom ".
Such is the importance of justice for the righteous man that the prophet Habakkuk, see the section 1 verses 3 and 4 come to complain to the Lord: "Why do you show me iniquity and oppression remains viewer? I have in front of robbery and violence, and there are quarrels and contentions move. He no longer has the power law, I 'never states the right. The fact outwits the wicked and the righteous judgment comes out distorted '. In Chapter 2 verses 1-4 comes the reply of God, "Write the vision and make it plain on tablets, so that may read it ... Here, those who did not succumb to the mood right, but the just shall live by his faith ".
The prophet Ezekiel the chapter 18 verses 1-9 communicates this unique "word of the Lord": « […] if one is right and observes the law and justice […] if you do not oppress anyone, returns the pledge to the debtor, does not commit robbery, divide your bread with the hungry and covers the naked with a garment, if it does not pay to wear and does not require interest, desist from iniquity and pronunciation rightto judgment fra man and another, whether they will walk in my statutes and keep my rules by acting faithfully, he is right and he will live, word of the Lord DI ".
In fact, we can not but remark that disobedience to God we did countless times, over the centuries, love esperienza beginning with the great primordial disobedience in the Garden of Eden [ GN 3]. Bitter experience that takes away the friendship, the grace, the presence of our Creator. A disobedience that catapults the man in the darkness of sin and death. Could instead - and the Lord really wants to give us the strength - Follow the example of the great saints of the past and present guided by the Blessed Virgin Mary, sublime example of holiness and Seat of Wisdom. The saints show us the way to get to Christ who is the Way, Truth and Life [GV 14,6]. I feel, reminds us that Cardinal Carlo Caffara, actualize admirable Christian morality in different historical moments. This is one of immense riches of Catholicism. Having so many "champions" of faith and morals that give us a shining example, we build spiritually, that attract us with their love and true goodness.
Father John Cavalcoli quite rightly points out that "there are those smiles to the distinction between good and bad, which is also used by Christ, as if it were naive children or a fundamentalist dualism. But the alternative is nothing more than to take refuge in a misunderstanding moralism, cloudy, opportunistic and relativist, under the guise of tolerance and liberality. And 'certainly prudent in many cases refrain from judging, but it can be a sign of cowardice or dishonesty will not take place when things are clear ", because if it is true that "because of the original sin we are all sinners, This does not eliminate the distinction between the righteous and sinners ". It continues to do so by the Dominican theologian: « […] that which is forbidden is claiming to substitute the judgment of God, Whereas, however, that already Augustine noted that to the extent that it already, although imperfectly, you can make that distinction, you should do it, and this is the task of human justice ".
We now turn briefly to the Right, about which it is appropriate to mention the Revelation and in particular to source the Old and New Testament, especially in view of the fact that in the Bible the term law - just think of the Torah or Pentateuch and the Tablets of the Law containing the Ten Commandments - is, no doubt, one of the most recurrent. Of course they are important references to the Law, Right, Justice also found in Sacred Tradition and the teaching of the Magisterium. Earlier we referred to the Old Testament. So I would like to quote a famous and very significant prophetic phrase: "Thus says the Lord: Practice Law and Justice, liberated the oppressed from the hands of the oppressor, do no violence and you do not oppress the stranger, l orfano and the Vedova, and do not shed innocent blood in this place ... " [Gives 22,3].
In all languages and cultures, the term means something right, note, of the rectum, of straight, not diverted. So all the laws be considered in itself straight, So right. But, reminds us, among the many, one of the greatest jurists of the twentieth century, Francesco Carnelutti, we can certainly say of a law enacted by the legislature, which is an unjust law. It
"... If a law can be unjust", says Carnelutti: "Compliance with the law is no longer a suitable concept to define justice. So how to overcome this great difficulty? There is no other way than to think that more laws are made by men, other are the laws made by God ".
Since ancient times, a great doctor as St. Jerome enunciated the axiom that Some of the other laws of Caesar. "The laws made by men".
Carnelutti followed in his exposition:
"Like all their works, may be wrong. The man-made laws are drafts of laws made by God; resemble the latter as a mechanical puppet can resemble a living man. Here is, the simplest survey puts end to this truth; above the laws passed by parliaments or imposed by dictators, there are other laws, made for men, but not by men, that, If you do not see it written in a code, are demonstrated by reason as is demonstrated by calculation of the astronomers the existence of a quantity of stars, that even the telescope can discover ".
Francesco Carnelutti of course did not want to question the appropriateness of a certain what "healthy secularity" of human institutions, the essential goodness of the law and civil society - and on the other hand also the Holy Apostle Paul in his first letter to Timothy, chapter 1 verse 8 tells us:"We know that the law is good as long as it is making a legitimate" - but the famous jurist Friuli, however, drew the logical conclusion of his argument:
"... So justice would result always in accordance with the law, provided that meant no law made by man, but God made. When an act is subject to a law made by God is right even if it does not comply with a law made by man; and vice versa. So we have heard the Vicar of Christ to teach judges that when a law is not in conformity with natural law, for the most, not to be applied. Since the set of things made by God is called the nature, to all the laws made by God was given the name, very appropriate, of natural law ".
How much truth in these words, and what a grave responsibility that governments in school policies In addition to some prestigious universities — not only Italians in truth — having culpably so great a matter outcast and worthy such as natural law — the rest guarded by the Church — and with it studies, insights, reflections which would be contrary to the really fundamental to the future of the company, for the future of our children.
The law of God can not be dismissed lightly, although in this era seems that it can be put aside with a shallowness, often with pride and arrogance perhaps never experienced in the past. Sometimes one gets the distinct impression that the man is become as, short, Fool, that is no longer able to recognize the real, the beautiful, good, which indeed has to fight these supreme virtue, these irreplaceable values. The good God is certainly merciful, patient and slow to anger, but it is most fitting. We call on Him and His sanctifying grace, to come back to instill in our minds and in our hearts the Holy Fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.
* The AUTORE – Jurist, she is a freelance forensic, achieved as a result of a diploma in theology, is philosophical and historical scientist and President of the International Tomas Tyn, of which are spiritual fathers and members of the editors of this magazine. This international association is High patron Cardinal Raymond Burke Leonard and Honorary President of the elderly mother of the Servant of God Tomas Tyn.
Video presentation of the site of the postulation for the cause of beatification of father Tomas Tyn — by John Carlson, OP
J. S. Bach: Praise God, Choir of the Diocese of Rome directed by Marco Frisina
solo: Andrea Bocelli